Amended Version of The Triple Alliance

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<h2> 5 December 1912<br>Amended Version of the Triple Alliance <br>in the Original French<br> </h2>
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[[Main_Page | WWI Document Archive ]] > [[Official Papers]] > '''Amended Version of The Triple Alliance'''
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[http://wwi/index.php/Amended_Version_of_The_Triple_Alliance_%28English_translation_of_the_above%29 An English translation] is also available.
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<h2> 5 December, 1912<br>Expanded Version of the Triple Alliance
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</h2>
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[http://wwi/index.php/Amended_Version_of_The_Triple_Alliance The French original] is also available.
 
<hr>
 
<hr>
  
<center>
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ARTICLE 1. The High Contracting Parties mutually promise peace and friendship, and will enter into no alliance or engagement directed against any one of their States.  <br><br>  
Leurs Majestés<br>
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L'Empereur d'Allemagne, Roi de Prusse,<br>
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They engage to proceed to an exchange of ideas on political and economic questions of a general nature which may arise, and they further promise one another mutual support within the limits of their own interests.  <br><br>   
L'Empereur d'Autriche, Roi de Bohème etc. et Roi Apostolique<br>
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de Hongrie<br>
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ARTICLE 2. In case Italy, without direct provocation on her part, should be attacked by France for any reason whatsoever, the two other Contracting Parties shall be bound to lend help and assistance with all their forces to the Party attacked. <br><br>  
et<br>
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le Roi d'Italie,</center><br>
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This same obligation shall devolve upon Italy in case of any aggression without direct provocation by France against Germany.  <br><br>  
:fermement résolus d'assurer à leurs Etats la continuation des bienfaits que leur garantit, au point de vue politique aussi bien qu'au point de vue monarchique et social, le maintien de la Triple Alliance, et voulant dans ce but prolonger la durée de cette alliance, conclue le 20 mai 1882, renouvelée une première fois par les Traités du 20 février 1887, une seconde fois par le Traité du 6 mai 1891 et une troisiéme fois par le Traité du 28 juin 1902, out, à cet effet, nommé comme Leurs plénepotentiaires, savoir:<br>
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Sa Majesté l'Empereur d'Allemagne, Roi de Prusse:<dd><blockquote>
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ARTICLE 3. If one, or two, of the High Contracting Parties, without direct provocation on their part, should chance to be attacked and to be engaged in a war with two or more Great Powers non-signatory to the present Treaty, the <i>casus foederis</i> will arise simultaneously for all the High Contracting Parties.     <br><br>
le Sieur Heinrich von Tschirschky und Bögendorff, Son Ambassadeur Extraordinaire et Plénepotentiaire près Sa majesté l'Empereur d'Autriche, Roi de Bohême etc. et Roi Apostolique de Hongrie;<br></dd></blockquote>
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Sa Majesté l'Empereur d'Autriche, Roi de Bohême etc. et Roi Apostolique de Hongrie:<dd><blockquote>
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ARTICLE 4. In case a Great Power non-signatory to the present Treaty should threaten the security of the states of one of the High Contracting Parties, and the threatened Party should find itself forced on that account to make war against  it, the two others bind themselves to observe towards their Ally a benevolent neutrality. Each of them reserves to itself, in this case, the right to take part in the war, if it should see fit, to make common cause with its Ally.  <br><br>  
le Comte Leopold Berchtold von und zu Ungarschitz, Son Ministre de la Maison Impériale et Royale et des Affaires Etrangères, Président du Conseil commun des Ministres;<br></blockquote>
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<center>et</center></dd>
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ARTICLE 5. If the peace of any of the High Contracting Parties should chance to be threatened under the circumstances foreseen by the preceding Articles, the High Contracting Parties shall take counsel together in ample time as to the military measures to be taken with a view to eventual cooperation.      <br><br>
Sa Majesté le Roi d'Italie:<br><dd><blockquote>
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They engage henceforward, in all cases of common participation in a war, to conclude neither armistice, nor peace, nor treaty, except by common agreement among  themselves.  <br><br>  
le Duc Giuseppe d'Avarna, Son Ambassadeur Extraordinaire et Pénepotentiaire près Sa Majesté l'Empereur d'Autriche, Roi de Bohême etc. et Roi Apostolique de Hongrie,<br></blockquote></dd></dl>
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lesquels, après échange de leurs pleins-pouvoirs, trouvés en bonne et due forme, sont convenus des articles suivants:<br><br>
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Article I<br><br>
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ARTICLE 6. Germany and Italy, having in mind only the maintenance, so far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the Orient, engage to use their influence to forestall on the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic and the Aegean Seas any territorial modification which might be injurious to one or the other of the Powers signatory to the present Treaty. To this end, they will communicate to one another all information of a nature to enlighten each other mutually concerning their own dispositions, as well as those of other Powers.<br><br>
  
Les Hautes Parties contractantes se promettent mutuellement paix et amitié et n'entreront dans aucune allaince ou engagement dirigé contre l'un de Leurs Etats.<br>
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ARTICLE 7. Austria-Hungary and Italy, having in mind only the maintenance, so far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the Orient, engage to use their influence to forestall any territorial modification which might be injurious to one or the other of the Powers signatory to the present Treaty. <br><br> 
Elles s'engagent à procéder à un échange d'idées sur les questions politiques et économiques d'une nature générale qui pourraient se présenter, et se promettent en outre Leur appui mutuel dans la limite de Leurs propres intérêts.<br><br>
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To this end, they shall communicate to one another all information of a nature to enlighten each other mutually concerning their own dispositions, as well as those of other Powers. However, if, in the course of events, the maintenance of the status quo in the regions of the Balkans or of the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic and in the Aegean Sea should become impossible, and if, whether in consequence of the action of a third Power or otherwise, Austria-Hungary or Italy should find themselves under the necessity of modifying it by a temporary or permanent occupation on their part, this occupation shall take place only after a previous agreement between the two Powers, based upon the principle of a reciprocal compensation for every advantage, territorial or other, which each of them might obtain beyond the present status quo, and giving satisfaction to the interests and well founded claims of the two Parties.<br><br>  
  
Article II<br><br>
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ARTICLE 8. The stipulations of Article VI and VII shall apply in no way to the Egyptian question, with regard to which the High Contracting Parties preserve respectively their freedom of action, regard being always paid to the principles upon which the present Treaty rests.<br><br>       
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ARTICLE 9.  Germany and Italy commit to employ themselves in maintaining the territorial status quo in the North African regions of the Mediterranean, specifically Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, and Tunisia.  The representatives of the two powers in these regions will have instructions to hold together as closely as possible in communications and mutual assistance.<br><br>
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If unfortunately, following a thorough examination of the situation, Germany and Italy each recognize that maintaining the <i>status quo</i> has become impossible, Germany commits, after a formal and preliminary agreement, to support Italy in any action under the form of occupation or other preemptory guarantee which the latter should undertake in these same regions in view of an interest in equilibrium and legitimate compensation.<br>
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It is understood that for similar possibilities the two powers would look as well to agree with England.<br><br>
  
Dans le cas où l'Italie, sans provocation directe de sa part, serait attaquée par la France pour quelque motif que ce soit, les deux autres Parties, contractantes seront tenues à prêter à la Partie attaquée secours et assistance avec toutes Leurs forces.<br>
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ARTICLE 10. If it should happen that France would act to extend its occupation or its protectorate or its sovereignty, under any form, in the North-African territories, and that in consequence of this fact Italy believes it necessary to safeguard its position in the Mediterranean, to undertake by itself an action on the said North-African territories, or even to have recourse on French territory in Europe in extreme measures, the state of war that would follow between Italy and France would constitute <i>ipso facto</i> on the demand of Italy and at the common charge of Germany and Italy, the <i>casus foederis</i> foreseen by articles II and V of the present Treaty as if similar possibilities were expressly designed for it.<br><br>
Cette même obligation incombera à l'Italie dans le cas d'une agression non directement provoquée de la France contre l'Allemagne.<br><br>
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Article III<br><br>
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ARTICLE 11. If the chances of any war undertaken in common against France by the two Powers should bring Italy to seek territorial guarantees with respect to France, for the security of the borders of the kingdom and of its maritime position as well as in view of stability and  peace, Germany would in no way interfere, and if needed and in a measure compatible with the circumstances, would work to facilitate the means of attaining a similar goal.<br><br>
  
Si une ou deux des Hautes Parties contractantes, sans provocation directe de Leur part, venaient à être attaquées et à se trouver engagées dans une guerre avec deux ou plusieurs Grandes Puissances non signataires du présent Traité, le «casus foederis» se présentera simultanément pour toutes les Hautes Parties contractantes.<br><br>
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ARTICLE 12. The High contracting Parties mutually pledge secrecy on the content of the present Treaty.<br><br>
  
Article IV<br><br>
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ARTICLE 13. The signatory Powers reserve the right to  introduce later, in form of protocol and of a common accord, any modifications whose usefulness might be demonstrated by the circumstances.<br><br>
  
Dans le cas où une Grande Puissance non signatoire du présent Traité menacerait la sécurité des Etats de l'une des Hautes Parties contractantes, et la Partie menacée se verrait, par là, forcée de lui faire la guerre, les deux autres s'obligent à observer, à l'égard de Leur allié, une neutralité bienveillante.  Chacune se réserve dans ce cas, la faculté de prendre part à la guerre, si Elle le jugeait à propos, pour faire cause commune avec Son allié.<br><br>
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ARTICLE 14. The present Treaty will remain in force for the space of six years following the expiration of the current Treaty; but if it had not been denounced one year in advance by one or the other of the contracting High Parties, it will remain in force for the length of six further years.<br><br>
  
Article V<br><br>
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ARTICLE 15. The ratifications of the present Treaty will be exchanged in Vienna, within fifteen days or sooner, if it can be done.<br><br>
 
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In good faith, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have affixed to it the seal of their arms.<br><br>
Si la paix de l'une des Hautes Parties contractantes venait à être menacée dans les circonstances prévues par les articles précédents, les Hautes Parties contractantes se concerteront en temps utile sur les mesures militaires à prendre en vue d'une coopération éventuelle.<br>
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Done in Vienna, in triplicate, the fifth day of the month of December nineteen twelve.<br><br>
Elles s'engagent, dès à présent, dans tous les cas de participation commune à une guerre, à ne conclure ni armistice ni paix ni Traité que d'un commun accord entre Elles.<br><br>
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<center>
 
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(Seal) Von Tschirschky<br>
Article VI<br><br>
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(Seal)     Berchtold<br>
 
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(Seal)       Avarna<br></center>
L'Allemagne et l'Italie n'ayant en vue que le maintien autant que possible du statu que territorial en Orient, s'engagent à user de Leur influence pour prévenir, sur les côtes et îles ottomanes dans la Mer Adriatique et dans la Mer Egée, toute modification territoriale qui proterait dommage à l'une ou à l'autre des Puissances signatoires du présent Traité.  Elles se communiqueront, à cet effet, tous les renseignements de nature à s'éclairer mutuellement sur Leurs propres dispositions ainsi que sur celles d'autres Puissances.<br><br>
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Article VII<br><br>
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L'Autriche-Hongrie et l'Italie, n'ayant en vue que le maintien, autant que possible, du statu que territorial en Orient, s'engagent à user de Leur influence pour prévenir toute modification territoriale quii porterait dommage à l'une ou à l'autre des Puissances signataires du présent Traité.  Elles se communiqueront, à cet effet, tous les renseignements de nature à éclairer mutuellement sur Leurs propres dispositions, ainsi que sur celles d'autres Puissances.  Toutefois dans le cas où, par suite des évènements, le maintien du statu quque dans les Régions des Balkans ou des côtes et îles ottomanes dans l'Adriatique et dans la Mer Egée deviendrait impossible et que, soit en conséquence de l'action d'une Puissance tierce soit autrement, l'Autriche-Hongrie ou l'Italie se verraient dans la nécessité de le modifier par une occupation temporaire ou permenante de Leur part, cette occupation n'aura lieu qu'aprè un accord préalable entre les deux Puissances, basé sur le principe d'une compensation réciproque.pour tout avantage, territorial ou autre, que chacune d'Elles obtiendrait en sus du statu que actuel et donnant satisfactio aux intérêts et aux prétentions bien fondées des deux Parties.<br><br>
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Article VIII<br><br>
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Les stipulations des articles VI et VII ne s'appliqueront d'aucune manière à la question égyptienne au sujet de laquelle les Hautes Parties contractantes conservent respectivement Leur liberté d'action, en égard toujours aux principes sur lesquels repose le présent Traité.<br><br>
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Article IX<br><br>
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L'Allemagne et l'Italie s'engagent à s'employer pour le maintien du statu que territorial dans les régions nord-africaines sur la Méditerranée, à savoir la Cyrénaïque, la Tripolitaine et la Tunisie.  Les représentants des deux Puissances dans ces régions auront pour instruction de se tenir dans la plus étroite intimité de communications et assistance mutuelles.<br>
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Si malheureusement, en suite dun mûr examen de la situation, l'Allemagne et l'Italie reconnaissaient l'une et l'autre que le maintien du statu que devenait impossible, l'Allemagne s'engage, après un accord formel et préalable, à appuyer l'Italie en toute action sous la forme d'occupation ou autre prise de garantie que cette dernière devrait entreprendre dans ces mêmes régions en vue d'un intérêt d'équilibre et de légitime compensation.<br>
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Il est entendu que pour pareille éventualité les deux Puissances chercheraient à se mettre également d'accord avec l'Angleterre.<br><br>
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Article X<br><br>
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S'il arrivait que la France fit acte d'étendre son occupation ou bien son protectorat ou sa souveraineté, sous une forme quelconque, sur les territoires nord-africains, et qu'en conséquence de ce fait l'Italie crût devoir, pour sauvegarder sa position dans la Méditerranée, entreprendre elle-même une action sur les dits territoires nord-africains, ou bien recourir sur le territoire français en Europe aux mesures extrèmes, l'état de guerre qui s'en suivrait entre l'Italie et la France constituerait ipso facto, sur la demande de l'Italie et à la charge commune de l'Allemagne et de l'Italie, le casus foederis prévu par les articles II et V du présent Traité comme si pareille éventualité y était expressément visée.<br><br>
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Article XI<br><br>
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Si les chances de toute guerre entreprise en commun contre la France par les deux Puissances amenaient l'Italie à rechercher des garanties territoriales à l'égard de la France, pour la sécurité des frontières du Royaume et de sa position maritime ainsi qu'en vue de la stabilité et de la paix, l'Allemagne n'y mettra aucun obstacle et, au besoin et dans une mesure compatible avec les circonstances, s'appliquera à faciliter les moyens d'atteindre un semblable but.<br><br>
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Article XII<br><br>
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Les Hautes Parties contactantes se promettent mutuellement le secret sur le contenu du présent Traité.<br><br>
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Article XIII<br><br>
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Les Puissances signataires se réservent d'y introduire ultérieurement, sous forme de protocole et d'un commun accord, les modifications dont l'utilité serait démontrée par les circonstances.<br><br>
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Article XIV<br><br>
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Le présent Traité restera en vigueur pour l'espace de six ans à partir de l'expiration du Traité actuel; mais s'il n'avait pas été dénoncé un an à l'avance par l'une ou l'autre des Hautes Parties contractantes, il restera en vigueur pour la même durée de six autres années.<br><br>
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Article XV<br><br>
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Les ratifications du présent Traité seront échangées à Vienne, dans un délai de quinze jours ou plus tôt, si faire se peut.<br>
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En foi de quoi, les Plénipotentaires respectifs ont signé le présent Traité et y ont apposé le cachet de leurs armes.<br>
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Fait à Vienne, en triple exemplaire, le cinquième jour du mois de décembre mil neuf cent douze.<br><br>
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<center>(Seal) von Tschirschky<br>
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(Seal) Berchtold<br>
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(Seal) Avarna</center><br><br>
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<hr>
 
<hr>
 
<b>Auxiliary protocols of 5 December 1912:</b><br><br>
 
<b>Auxiliary protocols of 5 December 1912:</b><br><br>
<center> Protocole</center><br><br>
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<center> Protocol</center><br><br>
  
Au moment de procéder à la signature du Traité de ce jour entre l'Allemagne, l'Autriche-Hongrie et l'Italie, les Plénipotentiaires soussignés de ces trois Puissances, à ce dûment autorisés, se déclarent mutuellement ce qui suit:<br><br>
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At the point of undertaking the signature of the treaty of this day between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the plenipotentiary signatories of these Three Powers, properly authorized to do so, mutually declare the following:<br><br>
  
1. Sauf réserve d'approbation parlementaire pour les stipulations effectives qui découleraient de la présente déclaration de principes, les Hautes Parties contractantes se promettent, dès ce moment, en matière économique (finances, douanes, chemins de fer), en sus du traitement de la nation la plus favorisée, toutes les facilités et tous les avantages particuliers qui seraient compatibles avec les exigences de chacun des trois Etats et avec Leurs engagements respectifs avec les tierces Puissances. <br><br>
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1. Under reservation of parliamentary approval for the actual agreements which would devolve from the present declaration of principles, the contracting High Parties pledge to each other, from this time forward, all facilitation and all granting of particular advantages in economic matters (finances, customs, railroads) beyond the treatment as most favored nation which would be compatible with the needs of each of the three states and with their respective responsibilities to third powers. <br><br>
  
2.  L'accession de l'Angleterre étant déjà acquise, en principe, aux stipulations du Traité de ce jour qui concernent l'Orient proprement dit, à savoir les territoires de l'Empire Ottoman, les Hautes Parties contractantes s'emploieront, au moment opportun et pour autant que les circonstances le comporteraient, à provoquer une accession analogue à l'égard des territoires nord-africains de la partie centrale et occidentale de la Méditerranée, le Maroc comprisCette accession pourrait se réaliser moyennant acceptation, de la part de l'Angleterre, du programme établi aux articles IX et X du Traité de ce jour.<br><br>
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2.  Since the agreement of England to the agreements of the treaty of this day concerning the actual Orient, i.e., those concerning the territories of the Ottoman Empire, has in essence already been achieved, the contracting High Parties will, at the opportune time and to the degree circumstances allow, set about to broker an analogous agreement with regard to the North African regions of the central and western parts of the Mediterranean, including MoroccoThis agreement could be reached by the acceptance on the part of England of the program established through Articles IX and X of the treaty of this day.<br><br>
  
En foi de quoi, les trois Plénipotentiaires ont signé, en triple exemplaire, le présent protocole. <br><br>
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In good faith, the three plenipotentiaries have signed the present protocol in triplicate
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<br><br>
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Done in Vienna  the fifth day of the month of December nineteen twelve.<br><br>
  
Fait à Vienne, le cinquième jour du mois de décembre mil neuf cent douze.<br><br>
 
 
<center>
 
<center>
 
von Tschirschky<br>
 
von Tschirschky<br>
 
Berchtold<br>
 
Berchtold<br>
Avarna</center><br><br><hr><br><br>
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Avarna</center><hr>
  
<center> Protocole</center><br><br>
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<center> Protocol</center><br><br>
  
Au moment de procéder à la signature du Traité de ce jour entre l'Allemagne, l'Autriche-Hongrie et l'Italie, les Plénipotentiaires soussignés de ces trois Puissances, à ce dûment autorisés, se déclarent mutuellement ce qui suit:<br><br>
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At the point of undertaking the signature of the treaty of this day between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the plenipotentiary signatories of these Three Powers, properly authorized to do so, mutually declare the following:<br><br>
  
1.  Il est entendu que le statu quo territorial dans les régions nord-africaines sur la Méditerranée, mentionné dans l'article IX du Traité du 28 Juin 1902, implique la souveraineté de l'Italie sur la Tripolitaine et la Cyrénaïque.<br><br>
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1.  It is agreed that the territorial <i>status quo</i> in the North African regions of the Mediterranean, mentioned in Article IX of the treaty of 28 June 1902, implies the sovereignty of Italy over Tripolitania and Cyrenaica.  
  
2.  Il est également entendu que l'article X du même Traité a pour base le statu quo territorial existant dans les régions nord-africaines au moment de la signature du Traité.<br><br>
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2.  It is likewise agreed that Article X of the same treaty has as its basis the territorial <i>status quo</i> existing in the North African regions at the time of the signing of the treaty. <br><br>
  
3.  Il est entendu que les arrangements spéciaux concernant l'Albanie et le Sandjak de Novi-Bazar convenus entre l'Autriche-Hongrie et l'Italie le 20 décembre 1900 / 9 février 1901 et le 20 novembre / 15 décembre 1909 ne sont pas modifiés par le renouvellement du Traité d'alliance entre l'Allemagne, l'Autriche-Hongrie et l'Italie.<br><br>
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3.  It is agreed that the special arrangements concerning Albania and the Sandzhak of Novy-Bazar, agreed to between Austria-Hungary and Italy 20 December 1900 / 9 February 1901 and 20 November / 15 December 1909, are not modified by the renewal of the treaty of alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. <br><br>
  
En foi de quoi, les trois Plénipotentiaires ont signé, en triple exemplaire, le présent protocole. <br><br>
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In good faith, the three plenipotentiaries have signed the present protocol in triplicate
 
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<br><br>
Fait à Vienne, le cinquième jour du mois de décembre mil neuf cent douze.<br><br>
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Done in Vienna  the fifth day of the month of December nineteen twelve.<br><br>
 
<center>
 
<center>
 
von Tschirschky<br>
 
von Tschirschky<br>
 
Berchtold<br>
 
Berchtold<br>
 
Avarna</center>
 
Avarna</center>
<hr>
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<hr><p align="right"> [[Main_Page | WWI Document Archive ]] > [[Official Papers]] > '''Amended Version of The Triple Alliance'''
 
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Return to '''[[Pre - 1914 Documents]]'''
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</center>
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Latest revision as of 19:24, 20 May 2009

WWI Document Archive > Official Papers > Amended Version of The Triple Alliance


5 December, 1912
Expanded Version of the Triple Alliance

The French original is also available.


ARTICLE 1. The High Contracting Parties mutually promise peace and friendship, and will enter into no alliance or engagement directed against any one of their States.

They engage to proceed to an exchange of ideas on political and economic questions of a general nature which may arise, and they further promise one another mutual support within the limits of their own interests.

ARTICLE 2. In case Italy, without direct provocation on her part, should be attacked by France for any reason whatsoever, the two other Contracting Parties shall be bound to lend help and assistance with all their forces to the Party attacked.

This same obligation shall devolve upon Italy in case of any aggression without direct provocation by France against Germany.

ARTICLE 3. If one, or two, of the High Contracting Parties, without direct provocation on their part, should chance to be attacked and to be engaged in a war with two or more Great Powers non-signatory to the present Treaty, the casus foederis will arise simultaneously for all the High Contracting Parties.

ARTICLE 4. In case a Great Power non-signatory to the present Treaty should threaten the security of the states of one of the High Contracting Parties, and the threatened Party should find itself forced on that account to make war against it, the two others bind themselves to observe towards their Ally a benevolent neutrality. Each of them reserves to itself, in this case, the right to take part in the war, if it should see fit, to make common cause with its Ally.

ARTICLE 5. If the peace of any of the High Contracting Parties should chance to be threatened under the circumstances foreseen by the preceding Articles, the High Contracting Parties shall take counsel together in ample time as to the military measures to be taken with a view to eventual cooperation.

They engage henceforward, in all cases of common participation in a war, to conclude neither armistice, nor peace, nor treaty, except by common agreement among themselves.

ARTICLE 6. Germany and Italy, having in mind only the maintenance, so far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the Orient, engage to use their influence to forestall on the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic and the Aegean Seas any territorial modification which might be injurious to one or the other of the Powers signatory to the present Treaty. To this end, they will communicate to one another all information of a nature to enlighten each other mutually concerning their own dispositions, as well as those of other Powers.

ARTICLE 7. Austria-Hungary and Italy, having in mind only the maintenance, so far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the Orient, engage to use their influence to forestall any territorial modification which might be injurious to one or the other of the Powers signatory to the present Treaty.

To this end, they shall communicate to one another all information of a nature to enlighten each other mutually concerning their own dispositions, as well as those of other Powers. However, if, in the course of events, the maintenance of the status quo in the regions of the Balkans or of the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic and in the Aegean Sea should become impossible, and if, whether in consequence of the action of a third Power or otherwise, Austria-Hungary or Italy should find themselves under the necessity of modifying it by a temporary or permanent occupation on their part, this occupation shall take place only after a previous agreement between the two Powers, based upon the principle of a reciprocal compensation for every advantage, territorial or other, which each of them might obtain beyond the present status quo, and giving satisfaction to the interests and well founded claims of the two Parties.

ARTICLE 8. The stipulations of Article VI and VII shall apply in no way to the Egyptian question, with regard to which the High Contracting Parties preserve respectively their freedom of action, regard being always paid to the principles upon which the present Treaty rests.

ARTICLE 9. Germany and Italy commit to employ themselves in maintaining the territorial status quo in the North African regions of the Mediterranean, specifically Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, and Tunisia. The representatives of the two powers in these regions will have instructions to hold together as closely as possible in communications and mutual assistance.

If unfortunately, following a thorough examination of the situation, Germany and Italy each recognize that maintaining the status quo has become impossible, Germany commits, after a formal and preliminary agreement, to support Italy in any action under the form of occupation or other preemptory guarantee which the latter should undertake in these same regions in view of an interest in equilibrium and legitimate compensation.
It is understood that for similar possibilities the two powers would look as well to agree with England.

ARTICLE 10. If it should happen that France would act to extend its occupation or its protectorate or its sovereignty, under any form, in the North-African territories, and that in consequence of this fact Italy believes it necessary to safeguard its position in the Mediterranean, to undertake by itself an action on the said North-African territories, or even to have recourse on French territory in Europe in extreme measures, the state of war that would follow between Italy and France would constitute ipso facto on the demand of Italy and at the common charge of Germany and Italy, the casus foederis foreseen by articles II and V of the present Treaty as if similar possibilities were expressly designed for it.

ARTICLE 11. If the chances of any war undertaken in common against France by the two Powers should bring Italy to seek territorial guarantees with respect to France, for the security of the borders of the kingdom and of its maritime position as well as in view of stability and peace, Germany would in no way interfere, and if needed and in a measure compatible with the circumstances, would work to facilitate the means of attaining a similar goal.

ARTICLE 12. The High contracting Parties mutually pledge secrecy on the content of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 13. The signatory Powers reserve the right to introduce later, in form of protocol and of a common accord, any modifications whose usefulness might be demonstrated by the circumstances.

ARTICLE 14. The present Treaty will remain in force for the space of six years following the expiration of the current Treaty; but if it had not been denounced one year in advance by one or the other of the contracting High Parties, it will remain in force for the length of six further years.

ARTICLE 15. The ratifications of the present Treaty will be exchanged in Vienna, within fifteen days or sooner, if it can be done.

In good faith, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have affixed to it the seal of their arms.

Done in Vienna, in triplicate, the fifth day of the month of December nineteen twelve.

(Seal) Von Tschirschky
(Seal) Berchtold

(Seal) Avarna

Auxiliary protocols of 5 December 1912:

Protocol


At the point of undertaking the signature of the treaty of this day between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the plenipotentiary signatories of these Three Powers, properly authorized to do so, mutually declare the following:

1. Under reservation of parliamentary approval for the actual agreements which would devolve from the present declaration of principles, the contracting High Parties pledge to each other, from this time forward, all facilitation and all granting of particular advantages in economic matters (finances, customs, railroads) beyond the treatment as most favored nation which would be compatible with the needs of each of the three states and with their respective responsibilities to third powers.

2. Since the agreement of England to the agreements of the treaty of this day concerning the actual Orient, i.e., those concerning the territories of the Ottoman Empire, has in essence already been achieved, the contracting High Parties will, at the opportune time and to the degree circumstances allow, set about to broker an analogous agreement with regard to the North African regions of the central and western parts of the Mediterranean, including Morocco. This agreement could be reached by the acceptance on the part of England of the program established through Articles IX and X of the treaty of this day.

In good faith, the three plenipotentiaries have signed the present protocol in triplicate

Done in Vienna the fifth day of the month of December nineteen twelve.

von Tschirschky
Berchtold

Avarna

Protocol


At the point of undertaking the signature of the treaty of this day between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the plenipotentiary signatories of these Three Powers, properly authorized to do so, mutually declare the following:

1. It is agreed that the territorial status quo in the North African regions of the Mediterranean, mentioned in Article IX of the treaty of 28 June 1902, implies the sovereignty of Italy over Tripolitania and Cyrenaica.

2. It is likewise agreed that Article X of the same treaty has as its basis the territorial status quo existing in the North African regions at the time of the signing of the treaty.

3. It is agreed that the special arrangements concerning Albania and the Sandzhak of Novy-Bazar, agreed to between Austria-Hungary and Italy 20 December 1900 / 9 February 1901 and 20 November / 15 December 1909, are not modified by the renewal of the treaty of alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.

In good faith, the three plenipotentiaries have signed the present protocol in triplicate

Done in Vienna the fifth day of the month of December nineteen twelve.

von Tschirschky
Berchtold

Avarna

WWI Document Archive > Official Papers > Amended Version of The Triple Alliance


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