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Latest revision as of 00:41, 2 June 2009

WWI Document Archive > Pre - 1914 Documents > Amended Version of The Triple Alliance (English translation )


5 December, 1912
Expanded Version of the Triple Alliance

The French original is also available.


ARTICLE 1. The High Contracting Parties mutually promise peace and friendship, and will enter into no alliance or engagement directed against any one of their States.

They engage to proceed to an exchange of ideas on political and economic questions of a general nature which may arise, and they further promise one another mutual support within the limits of their own interests.

ARTICLE 2. In case Italy, without direct provocation on her part, should be attacked by France for any reason whatsoever, the two other Contracting Parties shall be bound to lend help and assistance with all their forces to the Party attacked.

This same obligation shall devolve upon Italy in case of any aggression without direct provocation by France against Germany.

ARTICLE 3. If one, or two, of the High Contracting Parties, without direct provocation on their part, should chance to be attacked and to be engaged in a war with two or more Great Powers non-signatory to the present Treaty, the casus foederis will arise simultaneously for all the High Contracting Parties.

ARTICLE 4. In case a Great Power non-signatory to the present Treaty should threaten the security of the states of one of the High Contracting Parties, and the threatened Party should find itself forced on that account to make war against it, the two others bind themselves to observe towards their Ally a benevolent neutrality. Each of them reserves to itself, in this case, the right to take part in the war, if it should see fit, to make common cause with its Ally.

ARTICLE 5. If the peace of any of the High Contracting Parties should chance to be threatened under the circumstances foreseen by the preceding Articles, the High Contracting Parties shall take counsel together in ample time as to the military measures to be taken with a view to eventual cooperation.

They engage henceforward, in all cases of common participation in a war, to conclude neither armistice, nor peace, nor treaty, except by common agreement among themselves.

ARTICLE 6. Germany and Italy, having in mind only the maintenance, so far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the Orient, engage to use their influence to forestall on the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic and the Aegean Seas any territorial modification which might be injurious to one or the other of the Powers signatory to the present Treaty. To this end, they will communicate to one another all information of a nature to enlighten each other mutually concerning their own dispositions, as well as those of other Powers.

ARTICLE 7. Austria-Hungary and Italy, having in mind only the maintenance, so far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the Orient, engage to use their influence to forestall any territorial modification which might be injurious to one or the other of the Powers signatory to the present Treaty.

To this end, they shall communicate to one another all information of a nature to enlighten each other mutually concerning their own dispositions, as well as those of other Powers. However, if, in the course of events, the maintenance of the status quo in the regions of the Balkans or of the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic and in the Aegean Sea should become impossible, and if, whether in consequence of the action of a third Power or otherwise, Austria-Hungary or Italy should find themselves under the necessity of modifying it by a temporary or permanent occupation on their part, this occupation shall take place only after a previous agreement between the two Powers, based upon the principle of a reciprocal compensation for every advantage, territorial or other, which each of them might obtain beyond the present status quo, and giving satisfaction to the interests and well founded claims of the two Parties.

ARTICLE 8. The stipulations of Article VI and VII shall apply in no way to the Egyptian question, with regard to which the High Contracting Parties preserve respectively their freedom of action, regard being always paid to the principles upon which the present Treaty rests.

ARTICLE 9. Germany and Italy commit to employ themselves in maintaining the territorial status quo in the North African regions of the Mediterranean, specifically Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, and Tunisia. The representatives of the two powers in these regions will have instructions to hold together as closely as possible in communications and mutual assistance.

If unfortunately, following a thorough examination of the situation, Germany and Italy each recognize that maintaining the status quo has become impossible, Germany commits, after a formal and preliminary agreement, to support Italy in any action under the form of occupation or other preemptory guarantee which the latter should undertake in these same regions in view of an interest in equilibrium and legitimate compensation.
It is understood that for similar possibilities the two powers would look as well to agree with England.

ARTICLE 10. If it should happen that France would act to extend its occupation or its protectorate or its sovereignty, under any form, in the North-African territories, and that in consequence of this fact Italy believes it necessary to safeguard its position in the Mediterranean, to undertake by itself an action on the said North-African territories, or even to have recourse on French territory in Europe in extreme measures, the state of war that would follow between Italy and France would constitute ipso facto on the demand of Italy and at the common charge of Germany and Italy, the casus foederis foreseen by articles II and V of the present Treaty as if similar possibilities were expressly designed for it.

ARTICLE 11. If the chances of any war undertaken in common against France by the two Powers should bring Italy to seek territorial guarantees with respect to France, for the security of the borders of the kingdom and of its maritime position as well as in view of stability and peace, Germany would in no way interfere, and if needed and in a measure compatible with the circumstances, would work to facilitate the means of attaining a similar goal.

ARTICLE 12. The High contracting Parties mutually pledge secrecy on the content of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 13. The signatory Powers reserve the right to introduce later, in form of protocol and of a common accord, any modifications whose usefulness might be demonstrated by the circumstances.

ARTICLE 14. The present Treaty will remain in force for the space of six years following the expiration of the current Treaty; but if it had not been denounced one year in advance by one or the other of the contracting High Parties, it will remain in force for the length of six further years.

ARTICLE 15. The ratifications of the present Treaty will be exchanged in Vienna, within fifteen days or sooner, if it can be done.

In good faith, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have affixed to it the seal of their arms.

Done in Vienna, in triplicate, the fifth day of the month of December nineteen twelve.

(Seal) Von Tschirschky
(Seal) Berchtold

(Seal) Avarna

Auxiliary protocols of 5 December 1912:

Protocol


At the point of undertaking the signature of the treaty of this day between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the plenipotentiary signatories of these Three Powers, properly authorized to do so, mutually declare the following:

1. Under reservation of parliamentary approval for the actual agreements which would devolve from the present declaration of principles, the contracting High Parties pledge to each other, from this time forward, all facilitation and all granting of particular advantages in economic matters (finances, customs, railroads) beyond the treatment as most favored nation which would be compatible with the needs of each of the three states and with their respective responsibilities to third powers.

2. Since the agreement of England to the agreements of the treaty of this day concerning the actual Orient, i.e., those concerning the territories of the Ottoman Empire, has in essence already been achieved, the contracting High Parties will, at the opportune time and to the degree circumstances allow, set about to broker an analogous agreement with regard to the North African regions of the central and western parts of the Mediterranean, including Morocco. This agreement could be reached by the acceptance on the part of England of the program established through Articles IX and X of the treaty of this day.

In good faith, the three plenipotentiaries have signed the present protocol in triplicate

Done in Vienna the fifth day of the month of December nineteen twelve.

von Tschirschky
Berchtold

Avarna





Protocol


At the point of undertaking the signature of the treaty of this day between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the plenipotentiary signatories of these Three Powers, properly authorized to do so, mutually declare the following:

1. It is agreed that the territorial status quo in the North African regions of the Mediterranean, mentioned in Article IX of the treaty of 28 June 1902, implies the sovereignty of Italy over Tripolitania and Cyrenaica.

2. It is likewise agreed that Article X of the same treaty has as its basis the territorial status quo existing in the North African regions at the time of the signing of the treaty.

3. It is agreed that the special arrangements concerning Albania and the Sandzhak of Novy-Bazar, agreed to between Austria-Hungary and Italy 20 December 1900 / 9 February 1901 and 20 November / 15 December 1909, are not modified by the renewal of the treaty of alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.

In good faith, the three plenipotentiaries have signed the present protocol in triplicate

Done in Vienna the fifth day of the month of December nineteen twelve.

von Tschirschky
Berchtold

Avarna



WWI Document Archive > Pre - 1914 Documents > Amended Version of The Triple Alliance (English translation )