Secretary of State Bryan Opposes Loans to Belligerents
(United States, Senate Hearings, 74th Cong, 2d Sess., "Munitions
Industry Hearings," Part 25, January 7, 8, 1936 (Washington, 1937), pp.
Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan's attempt to persuade President Wilson not to allow the United States to approve loans to belligerent nations. Bryan was unsuccessful, resigned his position, and was succeed by Robert Lansing, who took the position that the United States ought to permit such loans.
Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to President Woodrow Wilson, August 10, 1914:
I beg to communicate to you an important matter which has come before the
Department. Morgan Company of New York have asked whether there would be
any objection to their making a loan to the French Government and also the
Rothschilds -- I suppose that is intended for the French Government. I
have conferred with Mr. Lansing and he knows of no legal objection to
financing this loan, but I have suggested to him the advisability of
presenting to you an aspect of the case which is not legal but I believe
to be consistent with our attitude in international matters. It is whether
it would be advisable for this Government to take the position that it will
not approve of any loan to a belligerent nation. The reasons that I would
give in support of this proposition are:
First: Money is the worst of all contrabands because it commands everything else. The question of making loans contraband by international agreement has been discussed, but no action has been taken. I know of nothing that would do more to prevent war than an international agreement that neutral nations would not loan to belligerents. While such an agreement would be of great advantage, could we not by our example hasten the reaching of such an agreement? We are the one great nation which is not involved, and our refusal to loan to any belligerent would naturally tend to hasten a conclusion of the war. We are responsible for the use of our influence through example, and as we cannot tell what we can do until we try, the only way of testing our influence is to set the example and observe its effect. This is the fundamental reason in support of the suggestion submitted.
Second: There is a special and local reason, it seems to me, why this course would be advisable. Mr. Lansing observed in the discussion of the subject that a loan would be taken by those in sympathy with the country in whose behalf the loan was negotiated. If we approved of a loan to France we could not, of course, object to a loan to Great Britain, Germany, Russia, or to any other country, and if loans were made to these countries, our citizens would be divided into groups, each group loaning money to the country which it favors and this money could not be furnished without expressions of sympathy. These expressions of sympathy are disturbing enough when they do not rest upon pecuniary interests -- they would be still more disturbing if each group was pecuniarily interested in the success of the nation to whom its members had loaned money.
Third: The powerful financial interests which would be connected with these loans would be tempted to use their influence through the newspapers to support the interests of the Government to which they had loaned because the value of the security would be directly affected by the result of the war. We would thus find our newspapers violently arrayed on one side or the other, each paper supporting a financial group and pecuniary interest, All of this influence would make it all the more difficult for us to maintain neutrality as our action on various questions that would arise would affect one side or the other and powerful financial interests would be thrown into the balance.... As we cannot prevent American citizens going abroad at their own risk, so we cannot prevent dollars going abroad at the risk of the owners, but the influence of the Government is used to prevent American citizens from doing this. Would the Government not be justified in using its influence against the enlistment of the nation's dollars in a foreign war?