The Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
3 March, 1918:(<a href="blapp.html">Including Appendices: Russia-Germany, Part I</a>)
The Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
(<a href="blapp2.html">Including Appendices: Russia-Germany, Part II</a>)
(<a href="blfleet.html">Including Appendices: The Russian Fleet</a>)
Article I. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey,
for the one part, and Russia, for the other part, declare that
the state of war between them has ceased. They are resolved
to live henceforth in peace and amity with one another.
Article II. The contracting parties will refrain from any
agitation or propaganda against the Government or the public
and military institutions of the other party. In so far as
this obligation devolves upon Russia, it holds good also for
the territories occupied by the Powers of the Quadruple
Article III. The territories lying to the west of the line
agreed upon by the contracting parties which formerly belonged
to Russia, will no longer be subject to Russian sovereignty;
the line agreed upon is traced on the map submitted as an
essential part of this treaty of peace. The exact fixation of
the line will be established by a Russo-German commission.
No obligations whatever toward Russia shall devolve upon the
territories referred to, arising from the fact that they
formerly belonged to Russia.
Russia refrains from all interference in the internal
relations of these territories. Germany and Austria-Hungary
purpose to determine the future status of these territories in
agreement with their population.
Article IV. As soon as a general peace is concluded and
Russian demobilization is carried out completely Germany will
evacuate the territory lying to the east of the line
designated in paragraph 1 of Article III, in so far as Article
IV does not determine otherwise.
Russia will do all within her power to insure the immediate
evacuation of the provinces of eastern Anatolia and their
lawful return to Turkey.
The districts of Erdehan, Kars, and Batum will likewise and
without delay be cleared of the russian troops. Russia will
not interfere in the reorganization of the national and
international relations of these districts, but leave it to
the population of these districts, to carry out this
reorganization in agreement with the neighboring States,
especially with Turkey.
Article V. Russia will, without delay, carry out the full
demobilization of her army inclusive of those units recently
organized by the present Government.
Furthermore, Russia will either bring her warships into
russian ports and there detain them until the day of the
conclusion of a general peace, or disarm them forthwith.
Warships of the States which continue in the state of war with
the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance, in so far as they are
within Russian sovereignty, will be treated as Russian
The barred zone in the Arctic Ocean continues as such until
the conclusion of a general peace. In the Baltic sea, and, as
far as Russian power extends within the Black sea, removal of
the mines will be proceeded with at once. Merchant navigation
within these maritime regions is free and will be resumed at
once. Mixed commissions will be organized to formulate the
more detailed regulations, especially to inform merchant ships
with regard to restricted lanes. The navigation lanes are
always to be kept free from floating mines.
Article VI. Russia obligates herself to conclude peace at
once with the Ukrainian People's Republic and to recognize the
treaty of peace between that State and the Powers of the
Quadruple Alliance. The Ukrainian territory will, without
delay, be cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard.
Russia is to put an end to all agitation or propaganda against
the Government or the public institutions of the Ukrainian
Esthonia and Livonia will likewise, without delay, be cleared
of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard. The eastern
boundary of Esthonia runs, in general along the river Narwa.
The eastern boundary of Livonia crosses, in general, lakes
Peipus and Pskow, to the southwestern corner of the latter,
then across Lake Luban in the direction of Livenhof on the
Dvina. Esthonia and Livonia will be occupied by a German
police force until security is insured by proper national
institutions and until public order has been established.
Russia will liberate at once all arrested or deported
inhabitants of Esthonia and Livonia, and insures the safe
return of all deported Esthonians and Livonians.
Finland and the Aaland Islands will immediately be cleared of
Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard, and the Finnish
ports of the Russian fleet and of the Russian naval forces.
So long as the ice prevents the transfer of warships into
Russian ports, only limited forces will remain on board the
warships. Russia is to put an end to all agitation or
propaganda against the Government or the public institutions
The fortresses built on the Aaland Islands are to be removed
as soon as possible. As regards the permanent non-
fortification of these islands as well as their further
treatment in respect to military technical navigation matters,
a special agreement is to be concluded between Germany,
Finland, Russia, and Sweden; there exists an understanding to
the effect that, upon Germany's desire, still other countries
bordering upon the Baltic Sea would be consulted in this
Article VII. In view of the fact that Persia and Afghanistan
are free and independent States, the contracting parties
obligate themselves to respect the political and economic
independence and the territorial integrity of these states.
Article VIII. The prisoners of war of both parties will be
released to return to their homeland. The settlement of the
questions connected therewith will be effected through the
special treaties provided for in Article XII.
Article IX. The contracting parties mutually renounce
compensation for their war expenses, i.e., of the public
expenditures for the conduct of the war, as well as
compensation for war losses, i.e., such losses as were caused
[by] them and their nationals within the war zones by military
measures, inclusive of all requisitions effected in enemy
Article X. Diplomatic and consular relations between the
contracting parties will be resumed immediately upon the
ratification of the treaty of peace. As regards the
reciprocal admission of consuls, separate agreements are
Article XI. As regards the economic relations between the
Powers of the Quadruple Alliance and Russia the regulations
contained in Appendices II-V are determinative....
Article XII. The reestablishment of public and private legal
relations, the exchange of war prisoners and interned
citizens, the question of amnesty as well as the question
anent the treatment of merchant ships which have come into the
power of the opponent, will be regulated in separate treaties
with Russia which form an essential part of the general treaty
of peace, and, as far as possible, go into force
simultaneously with the latter.
Article XIII. In the interpretation of this treaty, the
German and Russian texts are authoritative for the relations
between Germany and Russia; the German, the Hungarian, and
Russian texts for the relations between Austria-Hungry and
Russia; the Bulgarian and Russian texts for the relations
between Bulgaria and Russia; and the Turkish and Russian texts
for the relations between Turkey and Russia.
Article XIV. The present treaty of peace will be ratified.
The documents of ratification shall, as soon as possible, be
exchanged in Berlin. The Russian Government obligates itself,
upon the desire of one of the powers of the Quadruple
Alliance, to execute the exchange of the documents of
ratification within a period of two weeks. Unless otherwise
provided for in its articles, in its annexes, or in the
additional treaties, the treaty of peace enters into force at
the moment of its ratification.
In testimony whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed this
treaty with their own hand.
Executed in quintuplicate at Brest-Litovsk, 3 March, 1918.