Difference between revisions of "The Serbian Blue Book"

From World War I Document Archive
Jump to: navigation, search
Line 274: Line 274:
 
<HR>
 
<HR>
  
<c><b>No. 25<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 25<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna<br>
 
<i>From:</i> M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Vienna, July 2/15, 1914.<br><br>
 
Vienna, July 2/15, 1914.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Sir, <br><br>
 
Sir, <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
What steps will be taken ? In what form ? What demands will Austria-Hungary make of Serbia ? I do not believe that to-day even the Ballplatz itself could answer these questions clearly and precisely. I am of opinion that its plans are now being laid, and that again Count Forgach is the moving spirit.<br><br>
 
What steps will be taken ? In what form ? What demands will Austria-Hungary make of Serbia ? I do not believe that to-day even the Ballplatz itself could answer these questions clearly and precisely. I am of opinion that its plans are now being laid, and that again Count Forgach is the moving spirit.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
In an earlier report I mentioned that Austria-Hungary has to choose between two courses: either to make the Serajevo outrage a domestic question, inviting us to assist her to discover and punish the culprits; or to make it a case against the Serbians and Serbia, and even against the Jugo-Slavs. After taking into considerations all that is being prepared and done, it appears to me that Austria- Hungary will choose the latter course. Austria-Hungary will do this in the belief that she will have the approval of Europe. Why should she not profit by humiliating us, and, to a certain extent, justify the Friedjung and Agram trials ? Besides, Austria-Hungary desires in this manner to justify in the eyes of her own people and of Europe the sharp and reactionary measures which she contemplates undertaking internally in order to suppress the Great Serbian propaganda and the Jugo-Slav idea. Finally, for the sake of her prestige, Austrian Hungary must take some action in the belief that she will thus raise her prestige internally as well as externally.<br><br>
 
In an earlier report I mentioned that Austria-Hungary has to choose between two courses: either to make the Serajevo outrage a domestic question, inviting us to assist her to discover and punish the culprits; or to make it a case against the Serbians and Serbia, and even against the Jugo-Slavs. After taking into considerations all that is being prepared and done, it appears to me that Austria- Hungary will choose the latter course. Austria-Hungary will do this in the belief that she will have the approval of Europe. Why should she not profit by humiliating us, and, to a certain extent, justify the Friedjung and Agram trials ? Besides, Austria-Hungary desires in this manner to justify in the eyes of her own people and of Europe the sharp and reactionary measures which she contemplates undertaking internally in order to suppress the Great Serbian propaganda and the Jugo-Slav idea. Finally, for the sake of her prestige, Austrian Hungary must take some action in the belief that she will thus raise her prestige internally as well as externally.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
Austria-Hungary will, l think, draw up in the form of a memorandum an accusation against Serbia. In that accusation will be set forth all the evidence that has been collected against us since April, 1909, until to-day; and I believe that this accusation will be fairly lengthy. Austria-Hungary will communicate this accusation to the Cabinets of the European Powers with the remark that the facts contained therein give her the right to take diplomatic steps at Belgrade, and to demand that Serbia should in the future fulfil all the obligations of a loyal neighbour. At the same time Austria-Hungary will also hand us a note containing her demands, which we shall be requested to accept unconditionally.<br><br>
 
Austria-Hungary will, l think, draw up in the form of a memorandum an accusation against Serbia. In that accusation will be set forth all the evidence that has been collected against us since April, 1909, until to-day; and I believe that this accusation will be fairly lengthy. Austria-Hungary will communicate this accusation to the Cabinets of the European Powers with the remark that the facts contained therein give her the right to take diplomatic steps at Belgrade, and to demand that Serbia should in the future fulfil all the obligations of a loyal neighbour. At the same time Austria-Hungary will also hand us a note containing her demands, which we shall be requested to accept unconditionally.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I have, &c.<br><br>
 
I have, &c.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 26<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 26<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> Dr. M. Yovanovitch, Charg&eacute; d'Affaires at Berlin<br>
 
<i>From:</i> Dr. M. Yovanovitch, Charg&eacute; d'Affaires at Berlin<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Berlin, July 3/16, 1914.<br>
 
Berlin, July 3/16, 1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
The Secretary of State has informed me that the reports of the German Minister at Belgrade point to the existence of a Great Serbian propaganda, which should be energetically suppressed by the Government in the interest of good relations with Austria-Hungary.<br><br>
 
The Secretary of State has informed me that the reports of the German Minister at Belgrade point to the existence of a Great Serbian propaganda, which should be energetically suppressed by the Government in the interest of good relations with Austria-Hungary.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 27<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 27<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> M. M. S. Boschkovitch, Minister at London<br>
 
<i>From:</i> M. M. S. Boschkovitch, Minister at London<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
London, July 4/17, 1914.<br>
 
London, July 4/17, 1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
The Austrian Embassy is making very great efforts to win over the English press against us, and to induce it to favour the idea that Austria must give a good lesson to Serbia. The Embassy is submitting to the news editors cuttings from our newspapers as a proof of the views expressed in our press. The situation may become more acute during the next few weeks. No reliance should be placed in the ostensibly peaceable statements of Austro-Hungarian official circles, as the way is being prepared for diplomatic pressure upon Serbia, which may develop into an armed attack. It is probable that as soon as Austria-Hungary has taken action at Belgrade she will change her attitude and will seek to humiliate Serbia.<br><br>
 
The Austrian Embassy is making very great efforts to win over the English press against us, and to induce it to favour the idea that Austria must give a good lesson to Serbia. The Embassy is submitting to the news editors cuttings from our newspapers as a proof of the views expressed in our press. The situation may become more acute during the next few weeks. No reliance should be placed in the ostensibly peaceable statements of Austro-Hungarian official circles, as the way is being prepared for diplomatic pressure upon Serbia, which may develop into an armed attack. It is probable that as soon as Austria-Hungary has taken action at Belgrade she will change her attitude and will seek to humiliate Serbia.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 28<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 28<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> M. Ljub Michailovitch, Minister at Rome<br>
 
<i>From:</i> M. Ljub Michailovitch, Minister at Rome<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Rome, July 4/17, 1914.<br>
 
Rome, July 4/17, 1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.)<br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.)<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I have obtained reliable information to the effect that the Marquis di San Giuliano has stated to the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador that any step undertaken by Austria against Serbia which failed to take into account international considerations would meet with the disapproval of public opinion in Italy, and that the Italian Government desire to see the complete independence of Serbia maintained.<br><br>
 
I have obtained reliable information to the effect that the Marquis di San Giuliano has stated to the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador that any step undertaken by Austria against Serbia which failed to take into account international considerations would meet with the disapproval of public opinion in Italy, and that the Italian Government desire to see the complete independence of Serbia maintained.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 29<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 29<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd<br>
 
<i>From:</i> Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Petrograd, July 5/l8, 1914.<br>
 
Petrograd, July 5/l8, 1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I have spoken to the Assistant Minister for Foreign Affairs on the subject of the provocative attitude of the Korrespondenzbureau and the Vienna press.<br><br>
 
I have spoken to the Assistant Minister for Foreign Affairs on the subject of the provocative attitude of the Korrespondenzbureau and the Vienna press.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
M. Sazonof told me a few days ago that he wondered why the Austrian Government were doing nothing to put a stop to the futile agitation on the part of the press in Vienna which, after all, frightened nobody, and was only doing harm to Austria herself.<br><br>
 
M. Sazonof told me a few days ago that he wondered why the Austrian Government were doing nothing to put a stop to the futile agitation on the part of the press in Vienna which, after all, frightened nobody, and was only doing harm to Austria herself.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 30<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 30<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> M. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>From:</i> M. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>To:</i> All Serbian Missions abroad.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> All Serbian Missions abroad.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade, July 6/19, 1914.<br>
 
Belgrade, July 6/19, 1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Immediately after the Serajevo outrage the Austro-Hungarian press began to accuse Serbia of that detestable crime, which, in the opinion of that press, was the direct result of the Great Serbian idea. The Austrian press further contended that that idea was spread and propagated by various associations, such as the "Narodna Odbrana," "Kolo Srpskich Sestara," &c., which were tolerated by the Serbian Government.<br><br>
 
Immediately after the Serajevo outrage the Austro-Hungarian press began to accuse Serbia of that detestable crime, which, in the opinion of that press, was the direct result of the Great Serbian idea. The Austrian press further contended that that idea was spread and propagated by various associations, such as the "Narodna Odbrana," "Kolo Srpskich Sestara," &c., which were tolerated by the Serbian Government.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
On learning of the murder, the Serbian Royal Family, as well as the Serbian Government, sent messages of condolence, and at the same time expressed severe condemnation of and horror at the crime that had been committed. All festivities which had been fixed to take place on that day in Belgrade were immediately cancelled. !<br><br>
 
On learning of the murder, the Serbian Royal Family, as well as the Serbian Government, sent messages of condolence, and at the same time expressed severe condemnation of and horror at the crime that had been committed. All festivities which had been fixed to take place on that day in Belgrade were immediately cancelled. !<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
Nevertheless, the press of the neighbouring Monarchy continued to hold Serbia responsible for the Serajevo outrage. Moreover, the Austro-Hungarian press began to spread in connection with it various false reports, designed to mislead public opinion, which provoked the Belgrade press to reply in self-defence, and sometimes to active hostility in a spirit of embitterment aroused by the misrepresentation of what had occurred. Seeing that the Austro-Hungarian press was intentionally luring the Belgrade press into a awkward and delicate controversy, the Serbian Government hastened to warn the press in Belgrade, and to recommend it to remain calm and to confine itself to simple denials and to the suppression of false and misleading reports. The action of the Serbian Government was ineffectual in the case of some of the less important papers, more especially in view of the fact that newly invented stories were daily spread abroad with the object of serving political ends not only against Serbia but also against the Serbs in Austria-Hungary. The Serbian Government were unable to avert these polemics between the Serbian and the Austrian press, seeing that Serbian law, and the provisions of the constitution itself, guarantee the complete independence of the press and prohibit all measures of control and the seizure of newspapers. These polemics were further aggravated by the fact that the Vienna and Budapest journals selected passages from such of the Serbian newspapers as have practically no influence upon public opinion, strengthened still further their tone, and, having thus manipulated them, passed them on to the foreign press with the obvious intention of exciting public opinion in other European countries and of representing Serbia as being guilty.<br><br>
 
Nevertheless, the press of the neighbouring Monarchy continued to hold Serbia responsible for the Serajevo outrage. Moreover, the Austro-Hungarian press began to spread in connection with it various false reports, designed to mislead public opinion, which provoked the Belgrade press to reply in self-defence, and sometimes to active hostility in a spirit of embitterment aroused by the misrepresentation of what had occurred. Seeing that the Austro-Hungarian press was intentionally luring the Belgrade press into a awkward and delicate controversy, the Serbian Government hastened to warn the press in Belgrade, and to recommend it to remain calm and to confine itself to simple denials and to the suppression of false and misleading reports. The action of the Serbian Government was ineffectual in the case of some of the less important papers, more especially in view of the fact that newly invented stories were daily spread abroad with the object of serving political ends not only against Serbia but also against the Serbs in Austria-Hungary. The Serbian Government were unable to avert these polemics between the Serbian and the Austrian press, seeing that Serbian law, and the provisions of the constitution itself, guarantee the complete independence of the press and prohibit all measures of control and the seizure of newspapers. These polemics were further aggravated by the fact that the Vienna and Budapest journals selected passages from such of the Serbian newspapers as have practically no influence upon public opinion, strengthened still further their tone, and, having thus manipulated them, passed them on to the foreign press with the obvious intention of exciting public opinion in other European countries and of representing Serbia as being guilty.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
Those who have followed the course of these polemics will know that the Belgrade newspapers merely acted in self-defence, confining their activities to denials and to the refutation of falsehoods designed to mislead public opinion, at the same time attempting to convince foreign Governments (which, being occupied with other and more serious affairs, had no time to go into the matter themselves) of the intention of the Austro-Hungarian press to excite public opinion in its own country and abroad.<br><br>
 
Those who have followed the course of these polemics will know that the Belgrade newspapers merely acted in self-defence, confining their activities to denials and to the refutation of falsehoods designed to mislead public opinion, at the same time attempting to convince foreign Governments (which, being occupied with other and more serious affairs, had no time to go into the matter themselves) of the intention of the Austro-Hungarian press to excite public opinion in its own country and abroad.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
The Serbian Government at once expressed their readiness to hand over to justice any of their subjects who might be proved to have played a part in the Serajevo outrage. The Serbian Government further stated that they had prepared a more drastic law against the misuse of explosives. The draft of a new law in that sense had already been laid before the State Council, but could not be submitted to the Skupshtina, as the latter was not sitting at the time. Finally, the Serbian Government stated that they were ready, as heretofore, to observe all those good neighbourly obligations to which Serbia was bound by her position as a European State.<br><br>
 
The Serbian Government at once expressed their readiness to hand over to justice any of their subjects who might be proved to have played a part in the Serajevo outrage. The Serbian Government further stated that they had prepared a more drastic law against the misuse of explosives. The draft of a new law in that sense had already been laid before the State Council, but could not be submitted to the Skupshtina, as the latter was not sitting at the time. Finally, the Serbian Government stated that they were ready, as heretofore, to observe all those good neighbourly obligations to which Serbia was bound by her position as a European State.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
During the whole of this period, from the date of the perpetration of the outrage until to-day, not once did the Austro-Hungarian Government apply to the Serbian Government for their assistance in the matter. They did not demand that any of the accomplices should be subjected to an enquiry, or that they should be handed over to trial. In one instance only did the Austrian Government ask for information as to the whereabouts of certain students who had been expelled from the Pakratz Teachers' Seminary, and had crossed over to Serbia to continue their studies. All available information on this point was supplied.<br><br>
 
During the whole of this period, from the date of the perpetration of the outrage until to-day, not once did the Austro-Hungarian Government apply to the Serbian Government for their assistance in the matter. They did not demand that any of the accomplices should be subjected to an enquiry, or that they should be handed over to trial. In one instance only did the Austrian Government ask for information as to the whereabouts of certain students who had been expelled from the Pakratz Teachers' Seminary, and had crossed over to Serbia to continue their studies. All available information on this point was supplied.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
The campaign against Serbia, however, was unremittingly pursued in the Austrian press, and public opinion was excited against her in Austria as well as in the rest of Europe. Matters went so far that the more prominent leaders of political parties in Austria-Hungary began to ask questions in Parliament on the subject of the outrage, to which the Hungarian Prime Minister replied. It is evident from the discussions in this connection that Austria is contemplating some action, but it is not clear in what sense. It is not stated whether the measures which are to be taken--more especially military measures-- will depend upon the reply and the conciliatory attitude of the Serbian Government. But an armed conflict is being hinted at in the event of the Serbian Government being unable to give a categorically satisfactory reply.<br><br>
 
The campaign against Serbia, however, was unremittingly pursued in the Austrian press, and public opinion was excited against her in Austria as well as in the rest of Europe. Matters went so far that the more prominent leaders of political parties in Austria-Hungary began to ask questions in Parliament on the subject of the outrage, to which the Hungarian Prime Minister replied. It is evident from the discussions in this connection that Austria is contemplating some action, but it is not clear in what sense. It is not stated whether the measures which are to be taken--more especially military measures-- will depend upon the reply and the conciliatory attitude of the Serbian Government. But an armed conflict is being hinted at in the event of the Serbian Government being unable to give a categorically satisfactory reply.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
On the sudden death of the Russian Minister, M. de Hartwig, at the residence of the Austrian Minister, the polemics in the newspapers became still more acute; nevertheless this sad event did not lead to any disorders even during the funeral of M. Hartwig. On the other hand, the Austro-Hungarian Legation was so perturbed by certain false reports that Austrian subjects began to conceal themselves, some of them taking refuge in the Semlin and Belgrade hotels, and others in the Legation itself. At 5 p.m. on the day of the King's birthday, which passed in the most orderly manner, I was informed by the Austrian Minister, through the Vice-Consul, M. Pomgraz, that preparations were being made for an attack that night on the Austrian Legation and on Austro-Hungarian subjects in Belgrade. He begged me to take the necessary steps for the protection of Austro-Hungarian subjects and of the Legation, stating at the same time that he held Serbia responsible for all that might occur. I replied that the responsible Serbian Government were not aware of any preparations of this kind being made, but that I would in any case at once inform the Minister of the Interior, and beg him at the same time to take such measures as might be necessary. The next day showed that the Austrian Legation had been misled by false rumours, for neither any attack nor any preparations for attack were made. Notwithstanding this, the Austro-Hungarian press took advantage of this incident to prove how excited public opinion was in Serbia and to what lengths she was ready to go. It went even further and tried to allege that something really had been intended to happen, since M. Pashitch himself had stated that he had heard of such rumours. All this indicates clearly the intention to excite public opinion against Serbia whenever occasion arises. <br><br>
 
On the sudden death of the Russian Minister, M. de Hartwig, at the residence of the Austrian Minister, the polemics in the newspapers became still more acute; nevertheless this sad event did not lead to any disorders even during the funeral of M. Hartwig. On the other hand, the Austro-Hungarian Legation was so perturbed by certain false reports that Austrian subjects began to conceal themselves, some of them taking refuge in the Semlin and Belgrade hotels, and others in the Legation itself. At 5 p.m. on the day of the King's birthday, which passed in the most orderly manner, I was informed by the Austrian Minister, through the Vice-Consul, M. Pomgraz, that preparations were being made for an attack that night on the Austrian Legation and on Austro-Hungarian subjects in Belgrade. He begged me to take the necessary steps for the protection of Austro-Hungarian subjects and of the Legation, stating at the same time that he held Serbia responsible for all that might occur. I replied that the responsible Serbian Government were not aware of any preparations of this kind being made, but that I would in any case at once inform the Minister of the Interior, and beg him at the same time to take such measures as might be necessary. The next day showed that the Austrian Legation had been misled by false rumours, for neither any attack nor any preparations for attack were made. Notwithstanding this, the Austro-Hungarian press took advantage of this incident to prove how excited public opinion was in Serbia and to what lengths she was ready to go. It went even further and tried to allege that something really had been intended to happen, since M. Pashitch himself had stated that he had heard of such rumours. All this indicates clearly the intention to excite public opinion against Serbia whenever occasion arises. <br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
When all that has been said in the Hungarian Parliament is taken into consideration, there is reason for apprehension that some step is being prepared against us which may produce a disagreeable effect upon the relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. There is still further ground for such apprehension, as it is abundantly evident that the enquiry which is being made is not to be limited to the perpetrators and their possible accomplices in the crime, but is most probably to be extended to Serbia and the Great Serbian idea. <br><br>
 
When all that has been said in the Hungarian Parliament is taken into consideration, there is reason for apprehension that some step is being prepared against us which may produce a disagreeable effect upon the relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. There is still further ground for such apprehension, as it is abundantly evident that the enquiry which is being made is not to be limited to the perpetrators and their possible accomplices in the crime, but is most probably to be extended to Serbia and the Great Serbian idea. <br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
By their attitude and the measures they have taken, the Serbian Government have irrefutably proved that they are working to restrain excitable elements, and in the interests of peace and the maintenance of good relations with all their neighbours. The Government have given their particular attention to the improvement and strengthening of their relations with the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which had lately become strained as a result of the Balkan wars and of the questions which arose therefrom. With that object in view, the Serbian Government proceeded to settle the question of the Oriental Railway, the new railway connections, and the transit through Serbia of Austro-Hungarian goods for Constantinople, Sofia, Salonica, and Athens.<br><br>
 
By their attitude and the measures they have taken, the Serbian Government have irrefutably proved that they are working to restrain excitable elements, and in the interests of peace and the maintenance of good relations with all their neighbours. The Government have given their particular attention to the improvement and strengthening of their relations with the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which had lately become strained as a result of the Balkan wars and of the questions which arose therefrom. With that object in view, the Serbian Government proceeded to settle the question of the Oriental Railway, the new railway connections, and the transit through Serbia of Austro-Hungarian goods for Constantinople, Sofia, Salonica, and Athens.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
The Serbian Government consider that their vital interests require that peace and tranquillity in the Balkans should be firmly and lastingly established. And for this very reason they fear lest the excited state of public opinion in Austria-Hungary may induce the Austro--Hungarian Government to make a d&eacute;marche which may humiliate the dignity of Serbia as a State, and to put forward demands which could not be accepted.<br><br>
 
The Serbian Government consider that their vital interests require that peace and tranquillity in the Balkans should be firmly and lastingly established. And for this very reason they fear lest the excited state of public opinion in Austria-Hungary may induce the Austro--Hungarian Government to make a d&eacute;marche which may humiliate the dignity of Serbia as a State, and to put forward demands which could not be accepted.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
I have the honour therefore to request you to impress upon the Government to which you are accredited our desire to maintain friendly relations with Austria-Hungary, and to suppress every attempt directed against the peace and public safety of the neighbouring Monarchy. We will likewise meet the wishes of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the event of our being requested to subject to trial in our independent Courts any accomplices in the outrage who are in Serbia --should such, of course, exist.<br><br>
 
I have the honour therefore to request you to impress upon the Government to which you are accredited our desire to maintain friendly relations with Austria-Hungary, and to suppress every attempt directed against the peace and public safety of the neighbouring Monarchy. We will likewise meet the wishes of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the event of our being requested to subject to trial in our independent Courts any accomplices in the outrage who are in Serbia --should such, of course, exist.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
But we can never comply with demands which may be directed against the dignity of Serbia, and which would be inacceptable to any country which respects and maintains its independence.<br><br>
 
But we can never comply with demands which may be directed against the dignity of Serbia, and which would be inacceptable to any country which respects and maintains its independence.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
Actuated by the desire that good neighbourly relations may be firmly established and maintained, we beg the friendly Governments to take note of these declarations and to act in a conciliatory sense should occasion or necessity arise.<br><br>
 
Actuated by the desire that good neighbourly relations may be firmly established and maintained, we beg the friendly Governments to take note of these declarations and to act in a conciliatory sense should occasion or necessity arise.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 31<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 31<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna<br>
 
<i>From:</i> M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Vienna, July 7/20, 1914.<br><br>
 
Vienna, July 7/20, 1914.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Sir, <br><br>
 
Sir, <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
It is very difficult, indeed almost impossible, to ascertain here anything positive as to the real intentions of Austria-Hungary. The word has been passed round to maintain absolute secrecy about everything that is being done. Judging by the articles in our newspapers, Belgrade is taking an optimistic view of the questions pending with Austria-Hungary. There is, however, no room for optimism. There is no doubt that Austria-Hungary is making preparations of a serious character. What is chiefly to be feared, and is highly probable, is, that Austria is preparing for war against Serbia. The general conviction that prevails here is that it would be nothing short of suicide for Austria-Hungary once more to fail to take advantage of the opportunity to act against Serbia. It is believed that the two opportunities previously missed--the annexation of Bosnia and the Balkan war--have been extremely injurious to Austria-Hungary. In addition, the conviction is steadily growing that Serbia, after her two wars, is completely exhausted, and that a war against Serbia would in fact merely mean a military expedition to be concluded by a speedy occupation. It is also believed that such a war could be brought to an end before Europe could intervene.<br><br>
 
It is very difficult, indeed almost impossible, to ascertain here anything positive as to the real intentions of Austria-Hungary. The word has been passed round to maintain absolute secrecy about everything that is being done. Judging by the articles in our newspapers, Belgrade is taking an optimistic view of the questions pending with Austria-Hungary. There is, however, no room for optimism. There is no doubt that Austria-Hungary is making preparations of a serious character. What is chiefly to be feared, and is highly probable, is, that Austria is preparing for war against Serbia. The general conviction that prevails here is that it would be nothing short of suicide for Austria-Hungary once more to fail to take advantage of the opportunity to act against Serbia. It is believed that the two opportunities previously missed--the annexation of Bosnia and the Balkan war--have been extremely injurious to Austria-Hungary. In addition, the conviction is steadily growing that Serbia, after her two wars, is completely exhausted, and that a war against Serbia would in fact merely mean a military expedition to be concluded by a speedy occupation. It is also believed that such a war could be brought to an end before Europe could intervene.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
The seriousness of Austrian intentions is further emphasised by the military preparations which are being made, especially in the vicinity of the Serbian frontier.<br><br>
 
The seriousness of Austrian intentions is further emphasised by the military preparations which are being made, especially in the vicinity of the Serbian frontier.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I have, &c.<br><br>
 
I have, &c.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 32<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 32<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> Baron Giesl von Gieslingen, Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade<br>
 
<i>From:</i> Baron Giesl von Gieslingen, Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade<br>
 
<i>To:</i> Dr. Laza Patchou, Acting Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> Dr. Laza Patchou, Acting Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade, July 10/23,1914.<br><br>
 
Belgrade, July 10/23,1914.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Sir, <br><br>
 
Sir, <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I have the honour to transmit to Your Excellency herewith the enclosed Note which I have received from my Government, addressed to the Royal Serbian Government.<br><br>
 
I have the honour to transmit to Your Excellency herewith the enclosed Note which I have received from my Government, addressed to the Royal Serbian Government.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I have, &c.<br><br>
 
I have, &c.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Handed personally at 6 p.m.<br><br>
 
Handed personally at 6 p.m.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
<!--"Link to Annex A of Gooch"--><br><br>
 
<!--"Link to Annex A of Gooch"--><br><br>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<br><br>
+
<HR>
<c><b>No. 33<br><br></c></b>
+
 
<br><br>
+
<b>No. 33<br><br></b>
 
<i>From:</i> Dr. Laza Patchou, Acting Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>From:</i> Dr. Laza Patchou, Acting Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>To:</i> All the Serbian Legations abroad.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> All the Serbian Legations abroad.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade; July 10/23, 19 l 4.<br>
 
Belgrade; July 10/23, 19 l 4.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
The Austro-Hungarian Minister handed me this afternoon at 6 p.m. a note in regard to the Serajevo outrage embodying the demands of the Austro-Hungarian Government, and insisting on a reply from the Serbian Government within two days, i.e., by Saturday, at 6 p.m. He informed me orally that he and his staff would leave Belgrade unless a favourable answer were forthcoming within the stipulated time.<br><br>
 
The Austro-Hungarian Minister handed me this afternoon at 6 p.m. a note in regard to the Serajevo outrage embodying the demands of the Austro-Hungarian Government, and insisting on a reply from the Serbian Government within two days, i.e., by Saturday, at 6 p.m. He informed me orally that he and his staff would leave Belgrade unless a favourable answer were forthcoming within the stipulated time.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
Some of the Ministers being absent from Belgrade the Serbian Government have not as yet come to any decision, but I am in a position to state now that the demands are such that no Serbian Government could accept them in their entirety.<br><br>
 
Some of the Ministers being absent from Belgrade the Serbian Government have not as yet come to any decision, but I am in a position to state now that the demands are such that no Serbian Government could accept them in their entirety.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 34<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 34<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> M. N Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>From:</i> M. N Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>To:</i> Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade, July 11/24,1914.<br>
 
Belgrade, July 11/24,1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I informed the Russian Charg&eacute; d'Affaires that I would hand in the reply to the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum on Saturday at 6 p.m. I told him that the Serbian Government would appeal to the Governments of the friendly Powers to protect the independence of Serbia. If war was inevitable, I added, Serbia would carry it on.<br><br>
 
I informed the Russian Charg&eacute; d'Affaires that I would hand in the reply to the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum on Saturday at 6 p.m. I told him that the Serbian Government would appeal to the Governments of the friendly Powers to protect the independence of Serbia. If war was inevitable, I added, Serbia would carry it on.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 35<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 35<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br>
 
<i>From:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. M. Boschkovitch, Minister in London.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. M. Boschkovitch, Minister in London.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade, July 11/24,1914.<br>
 
Belgrade, July 11/24,1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I informed the British Charg&eacute; d'Affaires to-day that the Austro-Hungarian demands were such that no Government of an independent country could accept them in their entirety. I expressed the hope that the British Government might possibly see their way to induce the Austro-Hungarian Government to moderate them. I did not conceal my anxiety as to future developments.<br><br>
 
I informed the British Charg&eacute; d'Affaires to-day that the Austro-Hungarian demands were such that no Government of an independent country could accept them in their entirety. I expressed the hope that the British Government might possibly see their way to induce the Austro-Hungarian Government to moderate them. I did not conceal my anxiety as to future developments.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 36<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 36<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd<br>
 
<i>From:</i> Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Petrograd, July 11/24,1914.<br>
 
Petrograd, July 11/24,1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
As I was leaving M. Sazonof, to whom I communicated the contents of the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum, I met the German Ambassador. He seemed to be in very good spirits. During the conversation which followed in regard to the Austro-Hungarian <i>d&eacute;marche </i> I asked Count Pourtal&egrave;s to indicate to me some way out of the situation created by the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum. The Ambassador replied that this depended on Serbia alone, since the matter in question must be settled between Austria and Serbia only, and did not concern anyone else. In reply I told Count Pourtal&egrave;s that he was under a misapprehension, and that he would see before long that this was not a question merely between Serbia and Austria, but a European question.<br><br>
 
As I was leaving M. Sazonof, to whom I communicated the contents of the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum, I met the German Ambassador. He seemed to be in very good spirits. During the conversation which followed in regard to the Austro-Hungarian <i>d&eacute;marche </i> I asked Count Pourtal&egrave;s to indicate to me some way out of the situation created by the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum. The Ambassador replied that this depended on Serbia alone, since the matter in question must be settled between Austria and Serbia only, and did not concern anyone else. In reply I told Count Pourtal&egrave;s that he was under a misapprehension, and that he would see before long that this was not a question merely between Serbia and Austria, but a European question.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 37<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 37<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> His Royal Highness the Crown Prince Alexander<br>
 
<i>From:</i> His Royal Highness the Crown Prince Alexander<br>
 
<i>To:</i> His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade, July 11/24,1914.<br>
 
Belgrade, July 11/24,1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
The Austro-Hungarian Government yesterday evening presented to the Servian Government a note respecting the outrage at Serajevo. Servia, aware of her international obligation, has declared, ever since the horrible crime was committed, that she condemned it, and that she was ready to open an enquiry in Servia if the complicity of certain of her subjects were proved at the trial instituted by the Austro-Hungarian authorities. The demand, contained in the Austro-Hungarian note are, however, unnecessarily humiliating for Servia, and incompatible with her dignity as an independent state. For instance, we are peremptorily called upon to insert a declaration by the Government in the " Official Journal," and for an order from the Sovereign to the army, in which we are to check the spirit of hostility toward Austria and to blame ourselves for criminal weakness as regards our treacherous intrigue. We are further required to admit Austro Hungarian officials into Servia to take part with our officials at the trial and to superintend the carrying out of the other conditions laid down in the note. W e are required to accept these demands in their entirety within forty-eight hours, failing which the Austro-Hungarian Legation will leave Belgrade. We are prepared to accept those of the Austro-Hungarian conditions which are compatible with the position of an independent State, as well as those to which your Majesty may advise us to agree, and all those persons whose complicity in the crime may be proved will be severely punished by us. Certain of the demands, could not be carried out without changes in our legislation, which would need time. We have been allowed too short a time limit. We may be attacked at the expiration of the time limit by the Austro-Hungarian army which is concentrating upon our frontier. We are unable to defend ourselves and we beg your Majesty to come to our aid as soon as possible. The much appreciated goodwill which your Majesty has so often shown towards us inspires us with the firm belief that once again our appeal to your noble Slav heart will not pass unheeded.<br><br>
 
The Austro-Hungarian Government yesterday evening presented to the Servian Government a note respecting the outrage at Serajevo. Servia, aware of her international obligation, has declared, ever since the horrible crime was committed, that she condemned it, and that she was ready to open an enquiry in Servia if the complicity of certain of her subjects were proved at the trial instituted by the Austro-Hungarian authorities. The demand, contained in the Austro-Hungarian note are, however, unnecessarily humiliating for Servia, and incompatible with her dignity as an independent state. For instance, we are peremptorily called upon to insert a declaration by the Government in the " Official Journal," and for an order from the Sovereign to the army, in which we are to check the spirit of hostility toward Austria and to blame ourselves for criminal weakness as regards our treacherous intrigue. We are further required to admit Austro Hungarian officials into Servia to take part with our officials at the trial and to superintend the carrying out of the other conditions laid down in the note. W e are required to accept these demands in their entirety within forty-eight hours, failing which the Austro-Hungarian Legation will leave Belgrade. We are prepared to accept those of the Austro-Hungarian conditions which are compatible with the position of an independent State, as well as those to which your Majesty may advise us to agree, and all those persons whose complicity in the crime may be proved will be severely punished by us. Certain of the demands, could not be carried out without changes in our legislation, which would need time. We have been allowed too short a time limit. We may be attacked at the expiration of the time limit by the Austro-Hungarian army which is concentrating upon our frontier. We are unable to defend ourselves and we beg your Majesty to come to our aid as soon as possible. The much appreciated goodwill which your Majesty has so often shown towards us inspires us with the firm belief that once again our appeal to your noble Slav heart will not pass unheeded.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
At this critical moment I echo the feelings of the Servian people in praying your Majesty to be pleased to interest yourself in the fate of the Kingdom of Servia. <br><br>
 
At this critical moment I echo the feelings of the Servian people in praying your Majesty to be pleased to interest yourself in the fate of the Kingdom of Servia. <br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 38<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 38<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>From:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>To:</i> All the Serbian Legations abroad.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> All the Serbian Legations abroad.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade, July 12/25,1914.<br>
 
Belgrade, July 12/25,1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
A brief Summary of the reply of the Royal Government was communicated to the representatives of the allied Governments at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs to-day. They were informed that the reply would be quite conciliatory on all points, and that the Serbian Government would accept the Austro-Hungarian demands as far as possible. The Serbian Government trust that the Austro-Hungarian Government, unless they are determined to make war at all costs, will see their way to accept the full satisfaction offered in the Serbian reply.<br><br>
 
A brief Summary of the reply of the Royal Government was communicated to the representatives of the allied Governments at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs to-day. They were informed that the reply would be quite conciliatory on all points, and that the Serbian Government would accept the Austro-Hungarian demands as far as possible. The Serbian Government trust that the Austro-Hungarian Government, unless they are determined to make war at all costs, will see their way to accept the full satisfaction offered in the Serbian reply.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 39<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 39<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
Reply of Serbian Government to the Austro-Hungarian Note<br><br>
 
Reply of Serbian Government to the Austro-Hungarian Note<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade, July 12/25, 1914.<br><br>
 
Belgrade, July 12/25, 1914.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
<!--"Link with Gooch, Annex B--><br><br>
 
<!--"Link with Gooch, Annex B--><br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 40<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 40<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> Baron Giesl von Gieslingen, Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade<br>
 
<i>From:</i> Baron Giesl von Gieslingen, Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade, July 12/ 25,1914.<br><br>
 
Belgrade, July 12/ 25,1914.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Sir,<br><br>
 
Sir,<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
As the time limit stipulated in the note, which, by order of my Government, I handed to His Excellency M. Patchou, on Thursday, the day before yesterday, at 6 p m., has now expired, and as I have received no satisfactory reply, I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that I am leaving Belgrade to-night together with the staff of the Imperial and Royal Legation.<br><br>
 
As the time limit stipulated in the note, which, by order of my Government, I handed to His Excellency M. Patchou, on Thursday, the day before yesterday, at 6 p m., has now expired, and as I have received no satisfactory reply, I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that I am leaving Belgrade to-night together with the staff of the Imperial and Royal Legation.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
The protection of the Imperial and Royal Legation, together with all its appurtenances, annexes, and archives, as well as the care of the subjects and interests of Austria-Hungary in Serbia, is entrusted to the Imperial German Legation<br><br>
 
The protection of the Imperial and Royal Legation, together with all its appurtenances, annexes, and archives, as well as the care of the subjects and interests of Austria-Hungary in Serbia, is entrusted to the Imperial German Legation<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
Finally, I desire to state formally that from the moment this letter reaches Your Excellency the rupture in the diplomatic relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary will have the character of a fait accompli.<br><br>
 
Finally, I desire to state formally that from the moment this letter reaches Your Excellency the rupture in the diplomatic relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary will have the character of a fait accompli.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I have, &c.<br><br>
 
I have, &c.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 41<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 41<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>From:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>To:</i> all the Serbian legations abroad.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> all the Serbian legations abroad.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Belgrade, July 12/25,1914.<br><br>
 
Belgrade, July 12/25,1914.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
I communicated the reply to the Austro-Hungarian note to-day at 5.45 p.m. You will receive the full text of the reply to-night. From it you will see that we have gone as far as was possible. When I handed the note to the Austro-Hungarian Minister he stated that he would have to compare it with his instructions, and that he would then give an immediate answer. As soon as I returned to the Ministry, I was informed in a note from the Austro-Hungarian Minister that he was not satisfied with our reply, and that he was leaving Belgrade the same evening, with the entire staff of the Legation. The protection of the Legation and its archives, and the care of Austrian and Hungarian interests had been entrusted by him to the German Legation. He stated finally that on receipt of the note diplomatic relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary must be considered as definitely broken off.<br><br>
 
I communicated the reply to the Austro-Hungarian note to-day at 5.45 p.m. You will receive the full text of the reply to-night. From it you will see that we have gone as far as was possible. When I handed the note to the Austro-Hungarian Minister he stated that he would have to compare it with his instructions, and that he would then give an immediate answer. As soon as I returned to the Ministry, I was informed in a note from the Austro-Hungarian Minister that he was not satisfied with our reply, and that he was leaving Belgrade the same evening, with the entire staff of the Legation. The protection of the Legation and its archives, and the care of Austrian and Hungarian interests had been entrusted by him to the German Legation. He stated finally that on receipt of the note diplomatic relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary must be considered as definitely broken off.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
The Royal Serbian Government have summoned the Skupshtina to meet on July 14/27 at Nish, whither all the Ministries with their staffs are proceeding this evening. The Crown Prince has issued, in the name of the King, an order for the mobilisation of the army, while to-morrow or the day after a proclamation will be made in which it will be announced that civilians who are not liable to military service should remain peaceably at home, while soldiers should proceed to their appointed posts and defend the country to the best of their ability, in the event of Serbia being attacked.<br><br>
 
The Royal Serbian Government have summoned the Skupshtina to meet on July 14/27 at Nish, whither all the Ministries with their staffs are proceeding this evening. The Crown Prince has issued, in the name of the King, an order for the mobilisation of the army, while to-morrow or the day after a proclamation will be made in which it will be announced that civilians who are not liable to military service should remain peaceably at home, while soldiers should proceed to their appointed posts and defend the country to the best of their ability, in the event of Serbia being attacked.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 42<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 42<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> Count Leopold Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>From:</i> Count Leopold Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Serbian Minister at Vienna<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Serbian Minister at Vienna<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Vienna, July 12125,1914.<br><br>
 
Vienna, July 12125,1914.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Sir,<br><br>
 
Sir,<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
As no satisfactory reply has been given to the note which the Imperial and Royal Minister Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary handed to the Royal Government on the 10/23 instant, I have been compelled to instruct Baron Giesl to leave the Serbian capital and to entrust the protection of the subjects of His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty to the German Legation.<br><br>
 
As no satisfactory reply has been given to the note which the Imperial and Royal Minister Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary handed to the Royal Government on the 10/23 instant, I have been compelled to instruct Baron Giesl to leave the Serbian capital and to entrust the protection of the subjects of His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty to the German Legation.<br><br>
 
I regret that the relations which I have had the honour to maintain with you, M. le Ministre, are thus terminated, and I avail myself of this opportunity to place at your disposal the enclosed passports for your return to Serbia, as well as for the return of the staff of the Royal Legation.<br><br>
 
I regret that the relations which I have had the honour to maintain with you, M. le Ministre, are thus terminated, and I avail myself of this opportunity to place at your disposal the enclosed passports for your return to Serbia, as well as for the return of the staff of the Royal Legation.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 43<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 43<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia<br>
 
<i>From:</i> His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia<br>
 
<i>To:</i> His Royal Highness the Crown Prince of Serbia.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> His Royal Highness the Crown Prince of Serbia.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Petrograd, July 14/27, 1914.<br>
 
Petrograd, July 14/27, 1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.)<br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.)<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
When Your Royal Highness applied to me at a time of especial stress, you were not mistaken in the sentiments which I entertain for you, or in my cordial sympathy with the Servian people.<br><br>
 
When Your Royal Highness applied to me at a time of especial stress, you were not mistaken in the sentiments which I entertain for you, or in my cordial sympathy with the Servian people.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
The existing situation is engaging my most serious attention, and my Government are using their utmost endeavour to smooth away the present difficulties. I have no doubt that your Highness and the Royal Servian Government wish to render that task easy by neglecting no step which might lead to a settlement, and thus both prevent the horrors of a new war and safeguard the dignity of Servia.<br><br>
 
The existing situation is engaging my most serious attention, and my Government are using their utmost endeavour to smooth away the present difficulties. I have no doubt that your Highness and the Royal Servian Government wish to render that task easy by neglecting no step which might lead to a settlement, and thus both prevent the horrors of a new war and safeguard the dignity of Servia.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
 
 
So long as the slightest hope exists of avoiding bloodshed, all our efforts must be directed to that end; but if in spite of our earnest wish we are not successful, your Highness may rest assured that Russia will in no case disinterest herself in the fate of Servia.<br><br>
 
So long as the slightest hope exists of avoiding bloodshed, all our efforts must be directed to that end; but if in spite of our earnest wish we are not successful, your Highness may rest assured that Russia will in no case disinterest herself in the fate of Servia.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 44<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 44<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> His Royal Highness the Crown Prince Alexander<br>
 
<i>From:</i> His Royal Highness the Crown Prince Alexander<br>
 
<i>To:</i> His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia.<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia.<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Nish, July 17/30, 1914.<br>
 
Nish, July 17/30, 1914.<br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.) <br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Deeply touched by the telegram which your Majesty was pleased to address to me yesterday, I hasten to thank you with all my heart. Your Majesty may rest assured that the cordial sympathy which your Majesty feels towards my country is especially valued by us, and fills our hearts with the belief that the future of Servia is secure now that it is the object of your Majesty's gracious solicitude These painful moments cannot but strengthen the bonds of deep attachment which bind Servia to Holy Slav Russia, and the sentiments of everlasting gratitude which we feel for the help and protection afforded to us by your Majesty will ever be cherished in the hearts of all the Serbs<br><br>
 
Deeply touched by the telegram which your Majesty was pleased to address to me yesterday, I hasten to thank you with all my heart. Your Majesty may rest assured that the cordial sympathy which your Majesty feels towards my country is especially valued by us, and fills our hearts with the belief that the future of Servia is secure now that it is the object of your Majesty's gracious solicitude These painful moments cannot but strengthen the bonds of deep attachment which bind Servia to Holy Slav Russia, and the sentiments of everlasting gratitude which we feel for the help and protection afforded to us by your Majesty will ever be cherished in the hearts of all the Serbs<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
<c><b>No. 45<br><br></c></b>
+
<b>No. 45<br><br></b>
<br><br>
+
 
<i>From:</i> Count Leopold Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br>
 
<i>From:</i> Count Leopold Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs.<br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br><br>
 
<i>To:</i> M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
Vienna, July 15/28, 1914. . <br>
 
Vienna, July 15/28, 1914. . <br>
 
(Telegraphic.)<br><br>
 
(Telegraphic.)<br><br>
<br><br>
 
 
THE Royal Serbian Government not having answered in a satisfactory manner the note of July 10/23, 1914, presented by the Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade, the Imperial and Royal Government are themselves compelled to see to the safeguarding of their rights and interests, and, with this object, to have recourse to force of arms. Austria-Hungary consequently considers herself henceforward in state of war with Serbia.<br><br>
 
THE Royal Serbian Government not having answered in a satisfactory manner the note of July 10/23, 1914, presented by the Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade, the Imperial and Royal Government are themselves compelled to see to the safeguarding of their rights and interests, and, with this object, to have recourse to force of arms. Austria-Hungary consequently considers herself henceforward in state of war with Serbia.<br><br>
<br><br>
+
<nowiki>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</nowiki>
<nowiki><c>*      *      *      *      *      *      *</c><br><br></nowiki>
+
<HR>
<br><br>
+
 
 
<c><b>No. 46<br><br></c></b>
 
<c><b>No. 46<br><br></c></b>
 
<br><br>
 
<br><br>

Revision as of 00:25, 5 April 2007

The Serbian Blue Book


* * * * * * *

No. 1

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna,
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, June 16/29, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The Vienna Press asserts that the magisterial enquiry has already shown that the Serajevo outrage was prepared at Belgrade; further, that the whole conspiracy in its wider issues was organised at Belgrade among youth inspired with the Great Serbian idea, and that the Belgrade Press is exciting public opinion by publishing articles about the intolerable conditions prevailing in Bosnia. Press articles of this kind, according to the Vienna Press, are exercising a strong influence, as Serbian newspapers are being smuggled in large quantities into Bosnia.


No. 2
From: Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, June 17/30, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The tendency at Vienna to represent, in the eyes of Europe, the outrage committed upon the Austro-Hungarian Crown Prince as the act of a conspiracy engineered in Serbia is becoming more and more apparent. The idea is to use this as a political weapon against us. The greatest attention ought, therefore, to be paid to the tone adopted by our press in its articles on the Serajevo outrage.

* * * * * * *


No. 3

From: Dr. M. Yovanovitch, Chargé d'Affaires at Berlin
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Berlin, June 17/30,1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The Berlin Press, in publishing articles based on information from Vienna and Budapest, in which the Serajevo outrage is connected with Serbia, is misleading German public opinion.

* * * * * * *


No. 4

From: Dr. M. Yovanovitch, Chargé d'Affaires at Berlin
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Berlin, June 17/30, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The hostility of public opinion in Germany towards us is growing. and is being fostered by false reports coming from Vienna and Budapest. Such reports are being diligently spread in spite of the contradictions issued by some newspapers and news agencies.

* * * * * * *


No. 5

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, the Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, June 17/30, 1914.
Sir,

As Count Berchtold was not able to receive me when I called, I spoke to the Under-Secretary of State at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs concerning the Serajevo outrage. In the course of our conversation I adopted the following line of argument:--

"The Royal Serbian Government condemn most energetically the Serajevo outrage and on their part will certainly most loyally do everything to prove that they will not tolerate within their territory the fostering of any agitation or illegal proceedings calculated to disturb our already delicate relations with Austria-Hungary. I am of opinion that the Government are prepared also to submit to trial any persons implicated in the plot, in the event of its being proved that there are any in Serbia. The Royal Serbian Government, not withstanding all the obstacles hitherto placed in their way by Austro-Hungarian diplomacy (creation of an independent Albania, opposition to Serbian access to the Adriatic, demand for revision of the Treaty of Bucharest, the September ultimatum, &c.) remained loyal in their desire to establish a sound basis for our good neighbourly relations. You know that in this direction something has been done and achieved. Serbia intends to continue to work for this object, convinced that it s practicable and ought to be continued. The Serajevo outrage ought not to and cannot stultify this work."

Baron Macchio has taken note of the above and promised to communicate to Count Berchtold all that I said to him.

On the same day I communicated to the French and Russian Ambassadors the substance of this conversation.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 6

From: M. M. Georgevitch, Chargé d'Affaires at Constantinople
To: M.N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Constantinople, June 17/30,1914.

Sir

I had to-day a long conversation with the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador here concerning the Serajevo outrage. I expressed the hope that this regrettable event--whatever is said about it in certain diplomatic circles--would not unfavourably influence the relation between Serbia and Austria-Hungary which lately had show considerable improvement.

He replied that such an eventuality was impossible, and ought not to be contemplated. He was also of opinion that Serbo-Austro-Hungarian relations had much improved lately. He added that the work in that direction ought to be persevered in. He informed me that from his latest conversations with Count Berchtold he understood that the latter was satisfied with the attitude adopted by the Serbian Government, and that he, on his part, sincerely desired friendly relations with Serbia.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 7

From: M. M. S. Boschkovitch, Minister in London
To: M N Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

London, June 18/July 1, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

Basing their information upon reports coming from Austrian sources, nearly all the English newspapers attribute the Serajevo outrage to the work of Serbian revolutionaries.

* * * * * * *


No. 8

From: M. N Pashitch, Prime Minster and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: All the Royal Serbian Legations abroad.

Belgrade, June 18/July 1, 1914.

The Austrian and Hungarian press are blaming Serbia more and more for the Serajevo outrage. Their aim is transparent, viz., to destroy that high moral reputation which Serbia now enjoys in Europe, and to take the fullest advantage politically against Serbia of the act of a young and ill-balanced fanatic. But, in Serbia itself, the Serajevo outrage has been most severely condemned in all circles of society, inasmuch as all, official as well as unofficial, immediately recognised that this outrage would be most prejudicial not only to our good neighbourly relations with Austria-Hungary but also to our co-nationalists in that country, as recent occurrences have proved. At a moment when Serbia is doing everything in her power to improve her relations with the neighbouring Monarchy, it is absurd to think that Serbia could have directly or indirectly inspired acts of this kind. On the contrary, it was of the greatest interest to Serbia to prevent the perpetration of this outrage. Unfortunately this did not lie within Serbia's power, as both assassins are Austrian subjects. Hitherto Serbia has been careful to suppress anarchic elements, and after recent events she will redouble her vigilance, and in the event of such elements existing within her borders will take the severest measures against them. Moreover, Serbia will do everything in her power and use all the means at her disposal in order to restrain the feelings of ill-balanced people within her frontiers. But Serbia can on no account permit the Vienna and Hungarian press to mislead European public opinion, and lay the heavy responsibility for a crime committed by an Austrian subject at the door of the whole Serbian nation and on Serbia, who can only suffer harm from such acts and can derive no benefit whatever.

Please act in the sense of the above views, and use all available channels in order to put an end as soon as possible to the anti-Serbian campaign in the European press.

* * * * * * *


No. 9

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, June 18/July 1, 1914.

(Telegraphic)

There were demonstrations last night in front of the Legation. I may say that the police showed considerable energy. Order and peace were maintained. As soon as I obtain positive information that the Serbian flag has been burned, I will lodge a complaint in the proper quarters. I will report to you the result. Hatred against Serbians and Serbia is being spread among the people, especially by the lower Catholic circles, the Vienna press, and military circles. Please do what is possible to prevent demonstrations taking place in Serbia, and to induce the Belgrade press to be as moderate as possible in tone. The tendency towards us here is still the same. It is expected that the decision as to the attitude to be adopted towards Serbia and the Serbians will be taken after the funeral.

* * * * * * *


No. 10

From: Dr. M. R. Vesnitch, Minister at Paris
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Paris, June 19/ July 2, 1914
(Telegraphic.)

The French Government advise us to maintain an attitude of the greatest possible calm and composure in official circles as well as in public opinion.

* * * * * * *


No. 11

From: M. Yov. M Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, June 20/July 3, 19l4.

Sir,

Yesterday being the day on which the remains of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife were brought from Serajevo to Vienna, I gave instructions that the national flag at my residence should be hoisted at half-mast as a sign of mourning

Yesterday evening, on this account, protests were made by the concierge, the other tenants, the landlord's agent, and the landlord himself, who demanded the removal of the flag. Explanations prove of no avail, and the assistance of the police authorities was requested. The latter privately asked that the flag should be removed in order to avoid further disorders. The flag was not removed, and accordingly noisy demonstrations took place last night in front of the Legation. The conduct of the police was energetic, and nothing happened to the flag or to the building which might constitute an insult. At 2 a.m. the crowd dispersed. To-day's papers, more particularly the popular clerical papers, publish articles under the heading "Provocation by the Serbian Minister," in which the whole incident is falsely described

The flag on the Legation building remained flying the whole time up to the conclusion of the service at the Court Chapel. As soon as this ceremony was concluded, the flag was removed. People from all over the quarter in which I live went to the Prefecture, the Municipality, and the State Council to demand the removal of our flag.

The crowd was harangued by Dr. Funder, director in chief of the Catholic Reichspost, Hermengild Wagner, and Leopold Mandl all of whom arc known as the chief instigators of the attacks in the Austrian and German press against Serbia and the Serbians.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 12

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, June 20/July 3, 1914.

Sir,

In the course of a conversation which I had with the Under Secretary at the Foreign Office on the subject of the Serajevo outrage, Baron Macchio severely criticised the Belgrade press and the tone of its articles. He argued that the Belgrade press was under no control and created die Hetzereien gegen die Monarchie. I told him that the press in Serbia was absolutely free, and that as a result private people as well as the Government very often suffered; there were, however, no means of proceeding against the press except by going to law. I told him that in the present instance the fault lay with the Austrian and Hungarian press which was controlled by the Austro-Hungarian Government. Was it not true that during the past two years the Austrian and Hungarian press had been attacking Serbia, in such a manner as to offend her most sensitive feelings ? The anniversary of the unfortunate war with Bulgaria had taken place a few days ago. I had myself witnessed the great lack of respect with which the Vienna press had written about Serbia and the Serbian army during and after the war, as well as in many other matters. The press in Belgrade was much more moderate. For instance, in the present case, a terrible crime had been committed and telegrams were being sent from Vienna to the whole world accusing the entire Serbian nation and Serbia of being accomplices of the detestable Serajevo outrage. All the Austrian newspapers were writing in that strain. Was it possible to remain indifferent? Even if the criminal was a Serbian, the whole Serbian nation and the Kingdom of Serbia could not be held guilty, nor could they be accused in such a manner.

Baron Macchio replied, "Nobody accuses the Kingdom of Serbia nor its Government, nor the whole Serbian nation. We accuse those who encourage the Great Serbian scheme and work for the realisation of its object."

I told him that it appeared to me that from the first the nationality of the criminal had been deliberately put forward in order to involve Belgrade and to create the impression that the outrage had been organised by Serbia. This had struck me immediately, as I knew that up till now the Serbians of Bosnia had been spoken of as die Bosniaken, bosnische Sprache, die Orthodoxen aus Bosnien, while now it was being said that the assassin was ein Serbe, but not that he was a Bosnian nor that he was an Austrian subject.

"I repeat," said Baron Macchio, "that we do not accuse the Serbian Government and the Serbian nation but the various agitators. . . ."

I begged him to use his influence in order to induce the Vienna press not to make matters more difficult by its accusations in this critical moment, when Serbo-Austrian relations were being put to a severe test.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 13

From: Dr. M. R. Vesnitch, Minister at Paris
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Paris, June 21/July 4,1914.

Sir,

I had a long conversation on Wednesday last on the subject of the Serajevo outrage with M. Viviani, the new Minister for Foreign Affairs, who was somewhat concerned at what had occurred. I made use of this opportunity to describe to him briefly the causes which had led to the outrage, and which were to be found, in the first place, in the irksome system of Government in force in the annexed provinces, and especially in the attitude of the officials, as well as in the whole policy of the Monarchy towards anything orthodox. He understood the situation, but at the same time expressed the hope that we should preserve an attitude of calm and dignity in order to avoid giving cause for fresh accusations in Vienna.

After the first moment of excitement public opinion here has quieted down to such an extent that the Minister-President himself considered it advisable in the Palais de Bourbon to soften the expressions used in the statement which he had made earlier on the subject in the Senate.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 14

From: Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Petrograd, June 21/July 4, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The Minister for Foreign Affairs tells me that the outrages committed upon Serbs in Bosnia will increase the sympathy of Europe for us. He is of opinion that the accusations made against us in Vienna will not obtain credence. The chief thing is for public opinion in Serbia to remain calm.

* * * * * * *


No. 15

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, June 23/July 6, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The excitement in military and Government circles against Serbia is steadily growing owing to the tone of our press, which is diligently exploited by the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade.

* * * * * * *


No. 16

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, June 23/July 6, 1914.

Sir,

The principal lines and tendencies to be found in the articles of the Vienna press on the subject of the Serajevo outrage are as follows:--

As long ago as Sunday afternoon, June 15/28 last, when the Vienna newspapers issued extra editions regarding the outrage upon the Crown Prince, the headlines announced that both the perpetrators were Serbians; moreover, this was done in such a manner as to leave the impression that they were Serbs from Serbia proper. In the later reports, which described the outrage, there was a marked tendency to connect it with Serbia. Two circumstances were especially emphasised and were intended to indicate Belgrade as the place of origin of the outrage, viz.: (1) the visit to Belgrade of both of the perpetrators; and (2) the origin of the bombs. As the third and last link in this chain of evidence, the Vienna papers began to publish the evidence given by the assassins at the trial. It was characteristic to find that the Hungarian Korrespondenzbureau, and the Hungarian newspapers, especially the Az Eszt were alone in a position to know all about this "evidence " This evidence mainly tends to show: (1) that it has been established that the perpetrators, while in Belgrade, associated with the comitadji Mihaylo Ciganovitch; and (2) that the organiser and instigator of the outrage was Major Pribitchevitch.

Another tendency became apparent at the same time, viz.: to hold the "Narodna Odbrana" responsible for this outrage. Further, on Friday last, the latest announcement which the Hungarian Korrespondenzbureau made to the newspapers stated:--

"The enquiries made up to the present prove conclusively that this outrage is the work of a conspiracy. Besides the two perpetrators, a large number of persons have been arrested, mostly young men, who are also, like the perpetrators, proved to have been employed by the Belgrade Narodna Odbrana in order to commit the outrage, and who were supplied in Belgrade with bombs and revolvers."

On the same day, late at night, the Hungarian Korrespondenzbureau sent the following request to the newspapers:--

"We beg the Editor not to publish the report relating to the Serajevo outrage, which appeared in our evening's bulletin."

At the same time the Vienna Korrespondenzbureau published the following official statement:--

"We learn from authoritative quarters that the enquiries relating to the outrage are being kept absolutely secret. All the details, therefore, which have appeared in the public press should be accepted with reserve."

Nevertheless, the Budapest newspapers continued to publish alleged reports on the enquiry. In the last "report" of the Budapest newspaper A Nap, which was reprinted in yesterday's Vienna papers, the tendency to lay the responsibility for the outrage on the Narodna Odbrana is still further emphasised. According to this report the accused Gabrinovitch had stated that General Yankovitch is the chief instigator of the outrage.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 17

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, June 24/July 7, 1914.

Sir,

In influential circles the excitement continues undiminished. Though the Emperor has addressed a letter to the Prime Ministers of Austria and Hungary respectively, and to the Minister of Finance, Herr Bilinski, in which an appeal is made for calmness, it is impossible to determine what attitude the Government will adopt towards us. For them one thing is obvious; whether it is proved or not that the outrage has been inspired and prepared at Belgrade, they must sooner or later solve the question of the so-called Great Serbian agitation within the Habsburg Monarchy. In what manner they will do this and what means they will employ to that end has not as yet been decided; this is being discussed especially in high Catholic and military circles. The ultimate decision will be taken only after it has been definitely ascertained what the enquiry at Serajevo has brought to light. The decision will be in accordance with the findings of the enquiry.

In this respect, Austria-Hungary has to choose one of the following courses: either to regard the Serajevo outrage as a national misfortune and a crime which ought to be dealt with in accordance with the evidence obtained, in which case Serbia's co-operation in the work will be requested in order to prevent the perpetrators escaping the extreme penalty; or, to treat the Serajevo outrage as a Pan-Serbian, South-Slav and Pan-Slav conspiracy with every manifestation of the hatred, hitherto repressed, against Slavdom. There are many indications that influential circles are being urged to adopt the latter course: it is therefore advisable to be ready for defence. Should the former and wiser course be adopted, we should do all we can to meet Austrian wishes in this respect.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 18

From: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.
To: All the Serbian Legations abroad.

Belgrade, June 26/July 9, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The Crown Prince Alexander is receiving threatening letters from Austria-Hungary nearly every day. Make use of this in course of conversation with your colleagues and journalists.

* * * * * * *


No. 19

From: Dr. M. Yovanovitch, Chargé d'Affaires at Berlin
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Berlin, July 1/14,1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The Secretary of State has told me that he could not understand the provocative attitude of the Serbian press and the attacks made by it against Austria-Hungary, who, as a Great Power, could not tolerate such proceedings

* * * * * * *


No. 20

From: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: All the Serbian Legations abroad.

Belgrade, July 1/14,1914.
(Telegraphic.)

(1) The Austrian Korrespondenzbureau is showing a marked tendency to excite public opinion in Europe. This Bureau interprets neither correctly nor sincerely the tone adopted by the Belgrade press. It selects the strongest expressions from such articles as contain replies to insults, threats and false news designed to mislead public opinion, and submits them to the Austro-Hungarian public.

(2) The Korrespondenzbureau quotes especially extracts from articles from those Serbian newspapers which are not the organs of any party or corporation.

(3) As far back as the annexation crisis, Austria-Hungary prohibited the entry into the country of all Serbian political and other newspapers, and thus our Press would not be in a position to excite public opinion in Austria-Hungary and Europe if the Korrespondenzbureau did not lay stress on and spread broadcast the items of news which it gathers from various Serbian papers, in every instance exaggerating them. Six days ago the entry into Austria-Hungary of the Odyek, the organ of the Independent Radical Party, was prohibited, thus all our papers are now prevented from entering Austria-Hungary.

(4) With us the press is absolutely free. Newspapers can be confiscated only for lèse-majesté or for revolutionary propaganda; in all other cases confiscation is illegal. There is no censorship of newspapers

In these circumstances, you should point out for their information, where necessary, that we have no other constitutional or legal means at our disposal for the control of our press. Nevertheless, when the articles in our papers are compared with those of Austria-Hungary, it is evident that the Austro-Hungarian papers originate the controversy, while ours merely reply.

Please also emphasise the fact that public opinion in Serbia is relatively calm, and that there is no desire on our part to provoke and insult Austria-Hungary. No one in Europe would know what our newspapers were writing if the Korrespondenzbureau did not publish these items of news with the intention of doing as much harm as possible to Serbia.

* * * * * * *


No. 21

From: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: All the Serbian legations abroad.

Belgrade, July 1/14, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

During the past few days the Austro-Hungarian newspapers have been spreading reports to the effect that there have been demonstrations at Belgrade against the Austro-Hungarian Legation, that some Hungarian journalists were killed; that Austro-Hungarian subjects in Belgrade were maltreated and are now panic-stricken; that at the funeral of the late M. Hartwig Serbian students made a demonstration against the Austro-Hungarian Minister, &c. All these reports are absolutely untrue and imaginary. Complete calm prevails in Belgrade and there were no demonstrations of any kind this year, nor has there been any question of disorder. Not only do the Austro-Hungarian Minister and his staff walk about the town without being molested in any way, but no Austro-Hungarian subject has been in any way insulted, either by word or deed, as is reported by the Viennese papers; still less was any attack made upon the house of any Austro-Hungarian subject or were any of their windows broken. Not a single Austro-Hungarian subject has had the slightest cause for any complaint. All these false reports are being purposely spread in order to arouse and excite Austro-Hungarian public opinion against Serbia.

The whole of Belgrade and the entire diplomatic body were present to-day at the funeral of the late M. Hartwig; there was not the slightest sign of resentment shown by anybody. During the whole ceremony exemplary order was maintained; so much so that foreigners were impressed with the good behaviour of the crowd, which was such as does not always prevail on similar occasions even in their own countries.

Be good enough to communicate the above to the Government to which you are accredited and to the press.

* * * * * * *


No. 22

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, July 1/14,1914

Sir,

Once more public opinion has been excited against us by the Literary Bureau of the Austro-Hungarian Ministry for Foreign Affairs. With the exception of the Zeit and the Arbeiter Zeitung, all the Austro-Hungarian newspapers have obtained from that Bureau the material and tone of their articles on the subject of the Serajevo outrage. You have yourself seen what kind of material and tone this is.

I am reliably informed that official German circles here are especially ill-disposed towards us. These circles have had some influence upon the writings of the Vienna press, especially upon those of the Neue Freie Presse.

This latter paper is still anti-Serbian à l'outrance. The Neue Freie Presse, which is widely read and has many friends in high financial circles, and which--if so desired--writes in accordance with instructions from the Vienna Press Bureau, briefly summarises the matter as follows: "We have to settle matters with Serbia by war; it is evident that peaceable means are of no avail. And if it must come to war sooner or later, then it is better to see the matter through now."

The Bourse is very depressed. There has not been such a fall in prices in Vienna for a long time. Some securities have fallen 45 kronen.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 23

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, July 2/15, 1914.

Sir,

The most important question for us is, what, if any, are the intentions of the Austro-Hungarian Government as regards the Serajevo outrage. Until now I have been unable to find this out, and my other colleagues are in a similar position. The word has now been passed round here not to tell anybody anything.

The evening before last the Ministers of the Dual Monarchy held a meeting. It has not been possible to learn anything about the object and the result of this meeting. The communiqué issued on the subject was brief and obscure. It appears that the consequences of the Serajevo outrage were discussed at length, but that nothing was decided. It is not clear whether the Chief of Staff and the Naval Commander-in-Chief were present, as was rumoured. After this meeting Count Berchtold travelled to Ischl to report to the Emperor, who, after the funeral of Franz Ferdinand, had returned there to recover his health. In the Hungarian Parliament Count Tisza has replied to the interpellations of the opposition concerning the Serajevo incident; you are acquainted with his statements. His speech was not clear, and I believe it was intentionally obscure. Some people saw in it signs of an intention quietly to await the development of events and of calmness in the attitude of the Austro-Hungarian Government, while others saw in it hidden intentions for (I should say) an action as yet undecided. It was noted that there was no occasion for haste until the results of the magisterial enquiry were announced. Some time has now elapsed; the matter has been spoken of, discussed, written about and distorted; then came the death of Hartwig and the alarm of Baron Giesl. In connection with this again came the interpellations addressed to Count Tisza in the Hungarian Parliament; you have read his reply. Many hold the opinion here that this second speech is much more restrained than the first, and that this is to be attributed to an order from the Emperor. (The Bourse has now recovered; both the War Minister and the Chief of Staff have gone on leave.) I am loath to express an opinion. In the above-mentioned speech it is to be noted that the possibility of war is not excluded, in the event of the demands of Austria-Hungary in regard to the Serajevo outrage not being complied with.

One thing is certain: Austria-Hungary will take diplomatic steps at Belgrade as soon as the magisterial enquiry at Serajevo is completed and the matter submitted to the Court.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 24

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, July 2/15, 1914.

Sir,

It is thought here that the magisterial enquiries and investigations have not produced sufficient evidence to justify bringing an official accusation against Serbia, but it is believed that the latter will be accused of tolerating within her borders certain revolutionary elements. Diplomatic circles here criticise and condemn the mode of procedure of the Austro-Hungarian Government, especially the attitude throughout of the Korrespondenzbureau and the Vienna press. There are many who consider our attitude to be correct and in accordance with the dignity of a nation. They find fault only with the views expressed in some of our newspapers, though they ad admit that it is provoked by the Vienna press.

In spite of the fact that it appears that the German Foreign Office does not approve of the anti-Serbian policy of Vienna, the German Embassy here is at this very moment encouraging such a policy.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 25

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, July 2/15, 1914.

Sir,

What steps will be taken ? In what form ? What demands will Austria-Hungary make of Serbia ? I do not believe that to-day even the Ballplatz itself could answer these questions clearly and precisely. I am of opinion that its plans are now being laid, and that again Count Forgach is the moving spirit.

In an earlier report I mentioned that Austria-Hungary has to choose between two courses: either to make the Serajevo outrage a domestic question, inviting us to assist her to discover and punish the culprits; or to make it a case against the Serbians and Serbia, and even against the Jugo-Slavs. After taking into considerations all that is being prepared and done, it appears to me that Austria- Hungary will choose the latter course. Austria-Hungary will do this in the belief that she will have the approval of Europe. Why should she not profit by humiliating us, and, to a certain extent, justify the Friedjung and Agram trials ? Besides, Austria-Hungary desires in this manner to justify in the eyes of her own people and of Europe the sharp and reactionary measures which she contemplates undertaking internally in order to suppress the Great Serbian propaganda and the Jugo-Slav idea. Finally, for the sake of her prestige, Austrian Hungary must take some action in the belief that she will thus raise her prestige internally as well as externally.

Austria-Hungary will, l think, draw up in the form of a memorandum an accusation against Serbia. In that accusation will be set forth all the evidence that has been collected against us since April, 1909, until to-day; and I believe that this accusation will be fairly lengthy. Austria-Hungary will communicate this accusation to the Cabinets of the European Powers with the remark that the facts contained therein give her the right to take diplomatic steps at Belgrade, and to demand that Serbia should in the future fulfil all the obligations of a loyal neighbour. At the same time Austria-Hungary will also hand us a note containing her demands, which we shall be requested to accept unconditionally.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 26

From: Dr. M. Yovanovitch, Chargé d'Affaires at Berlin
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Berlin, July 3/16, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The Secretary of State has informed me that the reports of the German Minister at Belgrade point to the existence of a Great Serbian propaganda, which should be energetically suppressed by the Government in the interest of good relations with Austria-Hungary.

* * * * * * *


No. 27

From: M. M. S. Boschkovitch, Minister at London
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

London, July 4/17, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The Austrian Embassy is making very great efforts to win over the English press against us, and to induce it to favour the idea that Austria must give a good lesson to Serbia. The Embassy is submitting to the news editors cuttings from our newspapers as a proof of the views expressed in our press. The situation may become more acute during the next few weeks. No reliance should be placed in the ostensibly peaceable statements of Austro-Hungarian official circles, as the way is being prepared for diplomatic pressure upon Serbia, which may develop into an armed attack. It is probable that as soon as Austria-Hungary has taken action at Belgrade she will change her attitude and will seek to humiliate Serbia.

* * * * * * *


No. 28

From: M. Ljub Michailovitch, Minister at Rome
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Rome, July 4/17, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

I have obtained reliable information to the effect that the Marquis di San Giuliano has stated to the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador that any step undertaken by Austria against Serbia which failed to take into account international considerations would meet with the disapproval of public opinion in Italy, and that the Italian Government desire to see the complete independence of Serbia maintained.

* * * * * * *


No. 29

From: Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Petrograd, July 5/l8, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

I have spoken to the Assistant Minister for Foreign Affairs on the subject of the provocative attitude of the Korrespondenzbureau and the Vienna press.

M. Sazonof told me a few days ago that he wondered why the Austrian Government were doing nothing to put a stop to the futile agitation on the part of the press in Vienna which, after all, frightened nobody, and was only doing harm to Austria herself.

* * * * * * *


No. 30

From: M. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: All Serbian Missions abroad.

Belgrade, July 6/19, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

Immediately after the Serajevo outrage the Austro-Hungarian press began to accuse Serbia of that detestable crime, which, in the opinion of that press, was the direct result of the Great Serbian idea. The Austrian press further contended that that idea was spread and propagated by various associations, such as the "Narodna Odbrana," "Kolo Srpskich Sestara," &c., which were tolerated by the Serbian Government.

On learning of the murder, the Serbian Royal Family, as well as the Serbian Government, sent messages of condolence, and at the same time expressed severe condemnation of and horror at the crime that had been committed. All festivities which had been fixed to take place on that day in Belgrade were immediately cancelled. !

Nevertheless, the press of the neighbouring Monarchy continued to hold Serbia responsible for the Serajevo outrage. Moreover, the Austro-Hungarian press began to spread in connection with it various false reports, designed to mislead public opinion, which provoked the Belgrade press to reply in self-defence, and sometimes to active hostility in a spirit of embitterment aroused by the misrepresentation of what had occurred. Seeing that the Austro-Hungarian press was intentionally luring the Belgrade press into a awkward and delicate controversy, the Serbian Government hastened to warn the press in Belgrade, and to recommend it to remain calm and to confine itself to simple denials and to the suppression of false and misleading reports. The action of the Serbian Government was ineffectual in the case of some of the less important papers, more especially in view of the fact that newly invented stories were daily spread abroad with the object of serving political ends not only against Serbia but also against the Serbs in Austria-Hungary. The Serbian Government were unable to avert these polemics between the Serbian and the Austrian press, seeing that Serbian law, and the provisions of the constitution itself, guarantee the complete independence of the press and prohibit all measures of control and the seizure of newspapers. These polemics were further aggravated by the fact that the Vienna and Budapest journals selected passages from such of the Serbian newspapers as have practically no influence upon public opinion, strengthened still further their tone, and, having thus manipulated them, passed them on to the foreign press with the obvious intention of exciting public opinion in other European countries and of representing Serbia as being guilty.

Those who have followed the course of these polemics will know that the Belgrade newspapers merely acted in self-defence, confining their activities to denials and to the refutation of falsehoods designed to mislead public opinion, at the same time attempting to convince foreign Governments (which, being occupied with other and more serious affairs, had no time to go into the matter themselves) of the intention of the Austro-Hungarian press to excite public opinion in its own country and abroad.

The Serbian Government at once expressed their readiness to hand over to justice any of their subjects who might be proved to have played a part in the Serajevo outrage. The Serbian Government further stated that they had prepared a more drastic law against the misuse of explosives. The draft of a new law in that sense had already been laid before the State Council, but could not be submitted to the Skupshtina, as the latter was not sitting at the time. Finally, the Serbian Government stated that they were ready, as heretofore, to observe all those good neighbourly obligations to which Serbia was bound by her position as a European State.

During the whole of this period, from the date of the perpetration of the outrage until to-day, not once did the Austro-Hungarian Government apply to the Serbian Government for their assistance in the matter. They did not demand that any of the accomplices should be subjected to an enquiry, or that they should be handed over to trial. In one instance only did the Austrian Government ask for information as to the whereabouts of certain students who had been expelled from the Pakratz Teachers' Seminary, and had crossed over to Serbia to continue their studies. All available information on this point was supplied.

The campaign against Serbia, however, was unremittingly pursued in the Austrian press, and public opinion was excited against her in Austria as well as in the rest of Europe. Matters went so far that the more prominent leaders of political parties in Austria-Hungary began to ask questions in Parliament on the subject of the outrage, to which the Hungarian Prime Minister replied. It is evident from the discussions in this connection that Austria is contemplating some action, but it is not clear in what sense. It is not stated whether the measures which are to be taken--more especially military measures-- will depend upon the reply and the conciliatory attitude of the Serbian Government. But an armed conflict is being hinted at in the event of the Serbian Government being unable to give a categorically satisfactory reply.

On the sudden death of the Russian Minister, M. de Hartwig, at the residence of the Austrian Minister, the polemics in the newspapers became still more acute; nevertheless this sad event did not lead to any disorders even during the funeral of M. Hartwig. On the other hand, the Austro-Hungarian Legation was so perturbed by certain false reports that Austrian subjects began to conceal themselves, some of them taking refuge in the Semlin and Belgrade hotels, and others in the Legation itself. At 5 p.m. on the day of the King's birthday, which passed in the most orderly manner, I was informed by the Austrian Minister, through the Vice-Consul, M. Pomgraz, that preparations were being made for an attack that night on the Austrian Legation and on Austro-Hungarian subjects in Belgrade. He begged me to take the necessary steps for the protection of Austro-Hungarian subjects and of the Legation, stating at the same time that he held Serbia responsible for all that might occur. I replied that the responsible Serbian Government were not aware of any preparations of this kind being made, but that I would in any case at once inform the Minister of the Interior, and beg him at the same time to take such measures as might be necessary. The next day showed that the Austrian Legation had been misled by false rumours, for neither any attack nor any preparations for attack were made. Notwithstanding this, the Austro-Hungarian press took advantage of this incident to prove how excited public opinion was in Serbia and to what lengths she was ready to go. It went even further and tried to allege that something really had been intended to happen, since M. Pashitch himself had stated that he had heard of such rumours. All this indicates clearly the intention to excite public opinion against Serbia whenever occasion arises.

When all that has been said in the Hungarian Parliament is taken into consideration, there is reason for apprehension that some step is being prepared against us which may produce a disagreeable effect upon the relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. There is still further ground for such apprehension, as it is abundantly evident that the enquiry which is being made is not to be limited to the perpetrators and their possible accomplices in the crime, but is most probably to be extended to Serbia and the Great Serbian idea.

By their attitude and the measures they have taken, the Serbian Government have irrefutably proved that they are working to restrain excitable elements, and in the interests of peace and the maintenance of good relations with all their neighbours. The Government have given their particular attention to the improvement and strengthening of their relations with the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which had lately become strained as a result of the Balkan wars and of the questions which arose therefrom. With that object in view, the Serbian Government proceeded to settle the question of the Oriental Railway, the new railway connections, and the transit through Serbia of Austro-Hungarian goods for Constantinople, Sofia, Salonica, and Athens.

The Serbian Government consider that their vital interests require that peace and tranquillity in the Balkans should be firmly and lastingly established. And for this very reason they fear lest the excited state of public opinion in Austria-Hungary may induce the Austro--Hungarian Government to make a démarche which may humiliate the dignity of Serbia as a State, and to put forward demands which could not be accepted.

I have the honour therefore to request you to impress upon the Government to which you are accredited our desire to maintain friendly relations with Austria-Hungary, and to suppress every attempt directed against the peace and public safety of the neighbouring Monarchy. We will likewise meet the wishes of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the event of our being requested to subject to trial in our independent Courts any accomplices in the outrage who are in Serbia --should such, of course, exist.

But we can never comply with demands which may be directed against the dignity of Serbia, and which would be inacceptable to any country which respects and maintains its independence.

Actuated by the desire that good neighbourly relations may be firmly established and maintained, we beg the friendly Governments to take note of these declarations and to act in a conciliatory sense should occasion or necessity arise.

* * * * * * *


No. 31

From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Vienna, July 7/20, 1914.

Sir,

It is very difficult, indeed almost impossible, to ascertain here anything positive as to the real intentions of Austria-Hungary. The word has been passed round to maintain absolute secrecy about everything that is being done. Judging by the articles in our newspapers, Belgrade is taking an optimistic view of the questions pending with Austria-Hungary. There is, however, no room for optimism. There is no doubt that Austria-Hungary is making preparations of a serious character. What is chiefly to be feared, and is highly probable, is, that Austria is preparing for war against Serbia. The general conviction that prevails here is that it would be nothing short of suicide for Austria-Hungary once more to fail to take advantage of the opportunity to act against Serbia. It is believed that the two opportunities previously missed--the annexation of Bosnia and the Balkan war--have been extremely injurious to Austria-Hungary. In addition, the conviction is steadily growing that Serbia, after her two wars, is completely exhausted, and that a war against Serbia would in fact merely mean a military expedition to be concluded by a speedy occupation. It is also believed that such a war could be brought to an end before Europe could intervene.

The seriousness of Austrian intentions is further emphasised by the military preparations which are being made, especially in the vicinity of the Serbian frontier.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 32

From: Baron Giesl von Gieslingen, Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade
To: Dr. Laza Patchou, Acting Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Belgrade, July 10/23,1914.

Sir,

I have the honour to transmit to Your Excellency herewith the enclosed Note which I have received from my Government, addressed to the Royal Serbian Government.

I have, &c.

Handed personally at 6 p.m.



* * * * * * *


No. 33

From: Dr. Laza Patchou, Acting Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: All the Serbian Legations abroad.

Belgrade; July 10/23, 19 l 4.
(Telegraphic.)

The Austro-Hungarian Minister handed me this afternoon at 6 p.m. a note in regard to the Serajevo outrage embodying the demands of the Austro-Hungarian Government, and insisting on a reply from the Serbian Government within two days, i.e., by Saturday, at 6 p.m. He informed me orally that he and his staff would leave Belgrade unless a favourable answer were forthcoming within the stipulated time.

Some of the Ministers being absent from Belgrade the Serbian Government have not as yet come to any decision, but I am in a position to state now that the demands are such that no Serbian Government could accept them in their entirety.

* * * * * * *


No. 34

From: M. N Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd.

Belgrade, July 11/24,1914.
(Telegraphic.)

I informed the Russian Chargé d'Affaires that I would hand in the reply to the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum on Saturday at 6 p.m. I told him that the Serbian Government would appeal to the Governments of the friendly Powers to protect the independence of Serbia. If war was inevitable, I added, Serbia would carry it on.

* * * * * * *


No. 35

From: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.
To: M. M. Boschkovitch, Minister in London.

Belgrade, July 11/24,1914.
(Telegraphic.)

I informed the British Chargé d'Affaires to-day that the Austro-Hungarian demands were such that no Government of an independent country could accept them in their entirety. I expressed the hope that the British Government might possibly see their way to induce the Austro-Hungarian Government to moderate them. I did not conceal my anxiety as to future developments.

* * * * * * *


No. 36

From: Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Petrograd, July 11/24,1914.
(Telegraphic.)

As I was leaving M. Sazonof, to whom I communicated the contents of the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum, I met the German Ambassador. He seemed to be in very good spirits. During the conversation which followed in regard to the Austro-Hungarian démarche I asked Count Pourtalès to indicate to me some way out of the situation created by the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum. The Ambassador replied that this depended on Serbia alone, since the matter in question must be settled between Austria and Serbia only, and did not concern anyone else. In reply I told Count Pourtalès that he was under a misapprehension, and that he would see before long that this was not a question merely between Serbia and Austria, but a European question.

* * * * * * *


No. 37

From: His Royal Highness the Crown Prince Alexander
To: His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia.

Belgrade, July 11/24,1914.
(Telegraphic.)

The Austro-Hungarian Government yesterday evening presented to the Servian Government a note respecting the outrage at Serajevo. Servia, aware of her international obligation, has declared, ever since the horrible crime was committed, that she condemned it, and that she was ready to open an enquiry in Servia if the complicity of certain of her subjects were proved at the trial instituted by the Austro-Hungarian authorities. The demand, contained in the Austro-Hungarian note are, however, unnecessarily humiliating for Servia, and incompatible with her dignity as an independent state. For instance, we are peremptorily called upon to insert a declaration by the Government in the " Official Journal," and for an order from the Sovereign to the army, in which we are to check the spirit of hostility toward Austria and to blame ourselves for criminal weakness as regards our treacherous intrigue. We are further required to admit Austro Hungarian officials into Servia to take part with our officials at the trial and to superintend the carrying out of the other conditions laid down in the note. W e are required to accept these demands in their entirety within forty-eight hours, failing which the Austro-Hungarian Legation will leave Belgrade. We are prepared to accept those of the Austro-Hungarian conditions which are compatible with the position of an independent State, as well as those to which your Majesty may advise us to agree, and all those persons whose complicity in the crime may be proved will be severely punished by us. Certain of the demands, could not be carried out without changes in our legislation, which would need time. We have been allowed too short a time limit. We may be attacked at the expiration of the time limit by the Austro-Hungarian army which is concentrating upon our frontier. We are unable to defend ourselves and we beg your Majesty to come to our aid as soon as possible. The much appreciated goodwill which your Majesty has so often shown towards us inspires us with the firm belief that once again our appeal to your noble Slav heart will not pass unheeded.

At this critical moment I echo the feelings of the Servian people in praying your Majesty to be pleased to interest yourself in the fate of the Kingdom of Servia.

* * * * * * *


No. 38

From: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: All the Serbian Legations abroad.

Belgrade, July 12/25,1914.
(Telegraphic.)

A brief Summary of the reply of the Royal Government was communicated to the representatives of the allied Governments at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs to-day. They were informed that the reply would be quite conciliatory on all points, and that the Serbian Government would accept the Austro-Hungarian demands as far as possible. The Serbian Government trust that the Austro-Hungarian Government, unless they are determined to make war at all costs, will see their way to accept the full satisfaction offered in the Serbian reply.

* * * * * * *


No. 39

Reply of Serbian Government to the Austro-Hungarian Note

Belgrade, July 12/25, 1914.



* * * * * * *


No. 40

From: Baron Giesl von Gieslingen, Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Belgrade, July 12/ 25,1914.

Sir,

As the time limit stipulated in the note, which, by order of my Government, I handed to His Excellency M. Patchou, on Thursday, the day before yesterday, at 6 p m., has now expired, and as I have received no satisfactory reply, I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that I am leaving Belgrade to-night together with the staff of the Imperial and Royal Legation.

The protection of the Imperial and Royal Legation, together with all its appurtenances, annexes, and archives, as well as the care of the subjects and interests of Austria-Hungary in Serbia, is entrusted to the Imperial German Legation

Finally, I desire to state formally that from the moment this letter reaches Your Excellency the rupture in the diplomatic relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary will have the character of a fait accompli.

I have, &c.

* * * * * * *


No. 41

From: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: all the Serbian legations abroad.

Belgrade, July 12/25,1914.

I communicated the reply to the Austro-Hungarian note to-day at 5.45 p.m. You will receive the full text of the reply to-night. From it you will see that we have gone as far as was possible. When I handed the note to the Austro-Hungarian Minister he stated that he would have to compare it with his instructions, and that he would then give an immediate answer. As soon as I returned to the Ministry, I was informed in a note from the Austro-Hungarian Minister that he was not satisfied with our reply, and that he was leaving Belgrade the same evening, with the entire staff of the Legation. The protection of the Legation and its archives, and the care of Austrian and Hungarian interests had been entrusted by him to the German Legation. He stated finally that on receipt of the note diplomatic relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary must be considered as definitely broken off.

The Royal Serbian Government have summoned the Skupshtina to meet on July 14/27 at Nish, whither all the Ministries with their staffs are proceeding this evening. The Crown Prince has issued, in the name of the King, an order for the mobilisation of the army, while to-morrow or the day after a proclamation will be made in which it will be announced that civilians who are not liable to military service should remain peaceably at home, while soldiers should proceed to their appointed posts and defend the country to the best of their ability, in the event of Serbia being attacked.

* * * * * * *


No. 42

From: Count Leopold Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Serbian Minister at Vienna

Vienna, July 12125,1914.

Sir,

As no satisfactory reply has been given to the note which the Imperial and Royal Minister Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary handed to the Royal Government on the 10/23 instant, I have been compelled to instruct Baron Giesl to leave the Serbian capital and to entrust the protection of the subjects of His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty to the German Legation.

I regret that the relations which I have had the honour to maintain with you, M. le Ministre, are thus terminated, and I avail myself of this opportunity to place at your disposal the enclosed passports for your return to Serbia, as well as for the return of the staff of the Royal Legation.

* * * * * * *


No. 43

From: His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia
To: His Royal Highness the Crown Prince of Serbia.

Petrograd, July 14/27, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

When Your Royal Highness applied to me at a time of especial stress, you were not mistaken in the sentiments which I entertain for you, or in my cordial sympathy with the Servian people.

The existing situation is engaging my most serious attention, and my Government are using their utmost endeavour to smooth away the present difficulties. I have no doubt that your Highness and the Royal Servian Government wish to render that task easy by neglecting no step which might lead to a settlement, and thus both prevent the horrors of a new war and safeguard the dignity of Servia.

So long as the slightest hope exists of avoiding bloodshed, all our efforts must be directed to that end; but if in spite of our earnest wish we are not successful, your Highness may rest assured that Russia will in no case disinterest herself in the fate of Servia.

* * * * * * *


No. 44

From: His Royal Highness the Crown Prince Alexander
To: His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia.

Nish, July 17/30, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)

Deeply touched by the telegram which your Majesty was pleased to address to me yesterday, I hasten to thank you with all my heart. Your Majesty may rest assured that the cordial sympathy which your Majesty feels towards my country is especially valued by us, and fills our hearts with the belief that the future of Servia is secure now that it is the object of your Majesty's gracious solicitude These painful moments cannot but strengthen the bonds of deep attachment which bind Servia to Holy Slav Russia, and the sentiments of everlasting gratitude which we feel for the help and protection afforded to us by your Majesty will ever be cherished in the hearts of all the Serbs

* * * * * * *


No. 45

From: Count Leopold Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs.
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs

Vienna, July 15/28, 1914. .
(Telegraphic.)

THE Royal Serbian Government not having answered in a satisfactory manner the note of July 10/23, 1914, presented by the Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade, the Imperial and Royal Government are themselves compelled to see to the safeguarding of their rights and interests, and, with this object, to have recourse to force of arms. Austria-Hungary consequently considers herself henceforward in state of war with Serbia.

* * * * * * *


<c>No. 46

</c>


From: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: All the Serbian Legations abroad.



Nish, July 15/28, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)



The Austro-Hungarian Government declared war on Serbia at noon to-day by an open telegram to the Serbian Government.



<c>* * * * * * *</c><br><br>

<c>No. 47

</c>


From: Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd
To: M. Sazonof, Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs.



Petrograd, July 15/28, 1914.



Your Excellency,



I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that I have received from M. Pashitch the following urgent telegram despatched from Nish at 2.10 p.m.



"The Austro-Hungarian Government declared war on Serbia to-day at noon by an open telegram to the Serbian Governments."



I have the honour to inform Your Excellency of this regrettable act, which a Great Power had the courage to commit against a small Slav country which only recently emerged from a long series of heroic, but exhausting battles, and I beg leave on this occasion of deep gravity for my country, to express the hope that this act, which disturbs the peace of Europe and revolts her conscience, will be condemned by the whole civilised world and severely punished by Russia, the protector of Serbia.



I beg Your Excellency to be so kind as to lay this petition from the whole Serbian nation before the throne of His Majesty.



I take this opportunity to assure Your Excellency of my loyalty and respect.



I have, &c.



<c>* * * * * * *</c><br><br>

<c>No. 48

</c>


From: M. Sazonof, Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: Dr. M. Spalaikovitch, Minister at Petrograd



Petrograd, July 17/30, 1914.



Sir,



I had the honour to receive your note of July 15/28, No. 527, in which you communicated to me the contents of the telegram received by you from His Excellency, M. Pashitch, in regard to the declaration of war on Serbia by Austria-Hungary. I sincerely regret this sad event, and will not fail to lay before His Majesty the petition by the Serbian nation, whose interpreter you are.



I have, &c.



<c>* * * * * * *</c><br><br>

<c>No. 49

</c>


From: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
To: Dr. M. Yovanovitch, Chargé d'Affaires at Berlin.



Nish, July 22/August 4, 1914.
(Telegraphic.)



Please inform the Imperial Government that you have received instructions to leave Germany, together with the staffs of the Legation and Consulate. You should leave immediately.



<c>* * * * * * *</c><br><br>

<c>No. 50

</c>


From: The Royal Serbian Ministry for Foreign Affairs
To: The German legation at Nish.



Nish, July 21/August 6, 1914.



The Royal Serbian Ministry for Foreign Affairs has the honour to inform the Imperial Legation that, in view of the state of war which now exists between Serbia and Austria-Hungary, and of that between Russia and Germany, the ally of Austria-Hungary, the Royal Serbian Government, in view of the solidarity of her interests with Russia and her allies, considers the mission of Baron Gieslingen, the Imperial German Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary, to be at an end. The Royal Serbian Government requests His Excellency to leave Serbian territory with the staff of the Legations. The necessary passports are enclosed herewith.



<c>* * * * * * *</c><br><br>

<c>No. 51

</c>


From: Dr. M. Yovanovitch, Chargé d'Affaires at Berlin
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.



Berlin, July 24/August 6, 1914.



On the occasion of my visit to the Under-Secretary of State, M. Zimmermann, for the purpose of breaking off diplomatic relations, he stated, in the course of conversation, that Germany had always cherished friendly feelings towards Serbia, and that he regretted that owing to the political groupement our relations had to be broken off. He blames Russia only, as the instigator of Serbia, for the developments which have occurred, and which will have grave consequences for all nations. If Russia, at the last moment--just when it appeared possible that an armed convict might be avoided--had not ordered the mobilisation of her whole forces, there would have been no war, for Germany had used her whole influence in Austria-Hungary in order to bring about an understanding with Russia. Austria-Hungary would have probably been satisfied with the occupation of Belgrade, when negotiations would have begun with a view to regularising the relations between Serbia and Austria.



<c>* * * * * * *</c><br><br>

<c>No. 52

</c>


From: M. Yov. M. Yovanovitch, Minister at Vienna
To: M. N. Pashitch, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.



Nish, August 3/16,1914.



Sir,



From June 17/30 the Serbian Legation at Vienna was practically surrounded by police and gendarmes, while the staff were under constant police supervision. Our movements and our communications with the outer world were, as you can imagine, rendered extremely difficult; the attitude of the population towards the Legation and its staff was inclined to be menacing.



After the beginning of July (o.s.) even telegraphic communication with you became difficult, while matters developed with such rapidity that I was unable to report to you some of the events which preceded our armed conflict with Austria-Hungary. I accordingly do so now.



Up to the end of June (o.s.) the whole question of the Serajevo outrage appeared to be developing normally. At the commencement of July, however, a change took place as regards the question of the consequences of the Serajevo affair. There were no tangible proofs that a radical change had taken place, but it was to some extent indicated by certain vague signs and symptoms which betrayed the existence of some hidden intentions. First of all, the Vienna and Budapest press, in conformity with instructions issued by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, ceased to publish reports of the magisterial enquiry relating to the Serajevo outrage. The press began also to represent the whole matter as a question which must be settled between Serbia and Austria-Hungary alone--eventually by war.



Moreover, statements to this effect were communicated to the leading Vienna newspapers by the German Embassy. Exceptions were: the semi-official Fremdenblatt, which was, in general, more moderate in the tone of its articles; Die Zeit; and the Arbeiter Zeitung.



Simultaneously with this new attitude on the part of the press, a very unsettled condition of affairs developed on the Bourse, such as it had not witnessed during the whole course of recent events in the Balkans. In private conversations also and in high financial circles the "settlement with Serbia" was declared to be the only way out of the general financial and economic crisis prevailing in Austria-Hungary ever since the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Under secret instructions it was ordered that gold should be gradually withdrawn from circulation, and a corresponding rise in exchange took place.



A further indication was the clumsy explanation given of the reasons which had induced the Minister for War, Krobatin, and the Chief of the General Staff, Hetzendorf, to interrupt their leave of absence and return to Vienna. The Chief of Staff constantly travelled to the south, east, and north of Austria, and at that time had had an interview with the Chief of the German General Staff, Count Moltke, in Bohemia, I believe, at Carlsbad.



All the reserves which had been called out for the June manoeuvres in Bosnia and Herzegovina were kept with the colours beyond the stipulated period.



The number of soldiers belonging to the permanent establishment in Austria-Hungary allowed to go home on short leave of absence in order to gather in the harvest, and to attend to other private affairs, was much larger than is usually the case; at the same time those whose duties were of a military-administrative nature were called upon in ever increasing numbers.



Another indication was the non-committal nature of the answers given to several interpellations in the Hungarian Diet by the Hungarian Prime Minister, Count Tisza, a statesman who is very clear as a rule in his political statements.



The attitude of the Ballplatz was especially characteristic. None of the usual weekly receptions by Count Berchtold was held. They suddenly ceased at the Ballplatz to discuss the Serajevo outrage with the representatives of foreign countries; or, if discussion did arise, it seemed as if instructions had been issued on the subject; that is to say, it was mentioned to everyone in such a manner as to dispel all apprehensions and suspicion that Austria-Hungary was preparing some serious step against Serbia. They acknowledged that some step would be undertaken at Belgrade as soon as the results of the magisterial enquiry should have sufficiently established the connection between Belgrade and the Serajevo outrage. But, at the same time, it was said that this step would not be such as to give rise to any uneasiness. The Russian Ambassador, who spoke several times on the subject with Count Forgach, in the absence of Count Berchtold, was unable to discover the true nature of Austria's intentions. M. Schebeko told me that Count Szapary, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador at Petrograd, who, for family reasons, was at that time stopping in Vienna, had said to him that the step to be taken at Belgrade would be of conciliatory character. According to M. Schebeko, Count Szapary had also assured M. Sazonof that the intended Austro-Hungarian Note to Serbia would not be such as to cause Russia any dissatisfactions. The French Ambassador, M. Dumaine, who, under instructions from his Government, had drawn the attention of the Ballplatz to the complications which might arise should the eventual demands which it was intended to make of Serbia not be of a moderate nature, was told by the principal Under-Secretary, Baron Macchio, that the Austro-Hungarian Government, appreciating the friendly and conciliatory action of the French Government, would only put forward such demands, embodied in a note to the Serbian Government, as Serbia would be able to accept without difficulty. I drew the attention of the Ambassadors of the Triple Entente to the fact that such an assurance might well conceal the true nature of the intentions of the Austro-Hungarian Government, and that the Powers of the Triple Entente might then be confronted by certain faits accomplis which Europe would be compelled to accept in order to avoid a general European war.



The line followed by the Ballplatz was, moreover, comparatively successful, as all those of my colleagues whom I saw during that period were more or less dissuaded from believing that Austria-Hungary contemplated any serious step which could provoke European complications. Many of the members of the diplomatic body were so firmly convinced of this that they were preparing at that time to quit Vienna on long leave of absence at various watering places.



Nevertheless, it was known that a note was being drawn up at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs which would contain the accusations against Serbia, and also the demands of Austria-Hungary. This task was entrusted to Count Forgach, formerly Austro-Hungarian Minister in Serbia. At the same time it was universally believed that of the foreign representatives, the German Ambassador, Herr von Tschirsky, was the only one who was kept informed of the note even in its minutest details, while I had reason to believe that he was also co-operating in drafting it. In view of the above, the representatives of the friendly Powers agreed with me in thinking that the note would impose very difficult terms on Serbia, but that there would be no inacceptable demands. When the contents of the note were published all of them were surprised, not to say dumbfounded.



In the same way as the contents of the note were kept secret, a similar amount of secrecy was observed in regard to the date of its presentation. On the very day that the note was presented at Belgrade, the French Ambassador had a prolonged conversation with the Principal Under-Secretary at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs--Count Berchtold was again absent at Ischl--on the subject of the note. Yet Baron Macchio did not tell M. Dumaine that the note would be presented at Belgrade that afternoon, and published in the newspapers on the following day.



On the publication in the Vienna papers on the morning of July 11/24 of the contents of the note, which Baron Giesl had presented to then Serbian Government, a feeling of dejection came over the friends both of Serbia and of the peace of Europe. It was only then realised that serious European complications might ensue, though it was not believed that it was the intention of the Austro-Hungarian Government to provoke them. This feeling of depression was increased by the tone of the articles in the Viennese newspapers, with the exception of Die Zeit and Arbeiter Zeitung and by demonstrations in the streets, which clearly showed that war would be a most welcome solution--a war with Serbia, of course.



On that day, after having two or three conversations, I realised that an armed conflict between Serbia and the Dual Monarchy was inevitable, even should Serbia accept all the demands contained in the Austro-Hungarian Note, from the first to the last. The attitude of the people in the streets towards our Legation was such that I expected even personal attacks upon the members of the staff.



The French Ambassador, the British Ambassador, and the Russian Chargé d'Affaires held the view that the step taken by Austria-Hungary, should be considered not as a note but as an ultimatum. They disapproved of the form, the contents, and the time limit of the note; they also declared it to be inacceptable.



In the course of conversation with them on the subject of the note I pointed out that those passages in it which dealt with the order by the King to the Army, with the dismissal of officers and Government officials, and especially that which referred to the co-operation of, Austro-Hungarian officials in the "Suppression of the subversive movement in Serbia against the territorial integrity of the Monarchy," would be inacceptable as not being compatible with the dignity and sovereignty of Serbia. Only a victorious war, I said, could enforce the acceptance of conditions which were so humiliating to an independent State. In reply to their enquiry whether it would not perhaps be better to accept the conditions and avoid war for the present, I said that the Austro-Hungarian Note, which amounted in fact to a declaration of war upon Serbia, was worded in such a way that, even if Serbia should accept all the conditions without reserve, Austria-Hungary would still find an excuse for her army to march into Serbia at any time. It was in the h belief that the conflict would be limited to Serbia and Austria-Hungary that Austria-Hungary had drafted such a note.



To M. Dumaine, Sir M. de Bunsen, and the Russian Chargé d'Affaires, the unexpected character of the note was the cause not only of surprise but also of alarm, in view of the complications which they feared might ensue. The Russian Ambassador. M. Schebeko, previously to the presentation of the note, had stated on several occasions to his colleagues that Russia could not remain indifferent to any step taken by Austria-Hungary, which might have as an object the humiliation of Serbia. He also expressed the same view at the Ballplatz. Hence the apprehension felt by the three Ambassadors, who at once foresaw the possibility of war between Russia and Austria-Hungary.



The day after the note was presented, Prince Koudacheff went to see Count Berchtold to discuss the matter. In reply to his statement, that the note as it stood was inacceptable, and that Russia could not watch with indifference the humiliation of Serbia, Count Berchtold said that Austria-Hungary had been obliged to take this step as her very existence was threatened; that she could not withdraw nor alter the demands made in the note, and that he considered that the matter in dispute concerned Serbia and Austria-Hungary alone and that no other Power had any grounds for interference.



Count Berchtold's reply did not allow of any further doubts as to the intention of Austria-Hungary to chastise Serbia by force of arms without the consent of the European concert. From conversations which I had at that time with the Ambassadors of the Triple Entente --who, during the whole of that difficult period showed every kindness and attention to me and to the staff of the Legation--it seemed quite clear that Austria-Hungary had been assured, and felt convinced, that the Serbo-Austro-Hungarian conflict would be localised, as she would otherwise not have decided upon a note which undoubtedly meant war. It was also clear that Austria-Hungary was confirmed in this impression especially--and perhaps solely--by Herr von Tchirsky, the German Ambassador in Vienna. Herr von Tchirsky was the only one who thought and even stated publicly, that Russia would remain quiet while Austria-Hungary carried out her punitive expedition against Serbia. He declared that the Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs would easily control the Panslavists, in the same way as he had done last year, and that Russia was not disposed at the moment to begin a discussion of the many vexed questions in Europe and Asia which were her main concern. It was necessary, according to Herr von Tchirsky, to give Serbia a lesson. Russia had no right to interfere. As far as Germany, he said, was concerned, she was in the fullest sense of the word conscious of what she was doing in giving Austria-Hungary her support in the matter.



These statements of Herr von Tchirsky have induced many to hold the opinion that Germany desired to provoke a European war, on the ground that it was better to have war with Russia before the latter had completed her military reorganisation, i.e., before the spring of 1917. This point of view had formerly been freely discussed and even written about in Vienna. "The longer the matter is postponed, the smaller will become the chances of success of the Triple Alliance." On the other hand, rumours from the most authoritative diplomatic sources in Berlin reached me in Vienna, to the effect that the Wilhelmstrasse did not approve of Austria's policy on this question, and that Herr von Tchirsky has exceeded the instructions given to him.



The Russian Ambassador, M. Schebeko, on his return from Petrograd, did his utmost at the Ballplatz to obtain an extension of the brief time limit given to the Serbian Government for a reply to the Austro-Hungarian Note, and to discover some way which might lead to an exchange of views between Vienna and Petrograd in regard to the whole question, but until July 13/26, when we met, his efforts had proved unavailing. From the conversations I then had with him, I gathered that the Austro-Hungarian Note, in its contents and in its form, was regarded as a challenge to Russia and not to Serbia and that Russia would not permit the humiliation of Serbia, even if war were to be the price.



On the day of my departure from Vienna, M. Schebeko told me that, in spite of the many great difficulties to be overcome, there was a prospect of arriving at a solution by which an armed conflict might be avoided by means of discussion between the Russian Government and Count Szapary. A feeling of depression, however, prevailed in Vienna as soon as reports began to be spread that the Austro-Serbian conflict would bring about a war between Russia and the Dual Monarchy.



<c>* * * * * * *</c><br><br>

<c>APPENDIX

</c>



<c>DESPATCH FROM THE BRITISH AMBASSADOR AT ROME CONTAINING A REPORT OF A SPEECH DELIVERED ON THE 5th DECEMBER, 1914, BY SIGNOR GIOLITTI, FORMERLY PRIME MINISTER OF ITALY.</c>



<c>* * * * * * *</c><br><br>

<c>No. 1

</c>


From: Sir Rennell Rodd, British Ambassador at Rome
To: Sir Edward Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.



Rome, December 6, 1914



Sir,



With reference to my despatch of yesterday's date reporting the vote of confidence in the Government recorded in the Italian Chamber, I have the honour to inform you that in his speech which closed the discussion, Signor Giolitti stated, in illustration and justification of the attitude of Italy in separating herself from her allies and remaining neutral, that on the 9th August, 1913, being himself absent from Rome, he had received a telegram from the Minister for Foreign Affairs, the late Marquis di San Giuliano, to the following effect:--



"Austria has communicated to us and to Germany her intention of taking action against Servia, and defines such action as defensive, hoping to bring into operation the casus foederis of the Triple Alliance, which, on the contrary, I believe to be inapplicable. I am endeavouring to arrange for a combined effort with Germany to prevent such action on the part of Austria, but it may become necessary to state clearly that we do not consider such action, if it should be taken, as defensive, and that therefore we do not consider that the casus foederis arises."



Signor Giolitti's answer was as follows:--"If Austria intervenes against Servia it is clear that a casus foederis cannot be established. It is a step which she is taking on her own account, since there is no question of defence, inasmuch as no one is thinking of attacking her. It is necessary that a declaration to this effect should be made to Austria in the most formal manner, and we must hope for action on the part of Germany to dissuade Austria from this most perilous adventure."



This, he said, was done, and the action of Italy in no respect disturbed her relations with her allies. He explained this point in order to make it clear in the eyes of Europe that Italy had acted with entire loyalty, as she would do to the end.



It is interesting to notice that it was on the following day, the 10th August, that the peace of Bucharest, against which Austria was disposed to promulgate reserves, was signed.



(Signed) RENNELL RODD.



<c>* * * * * * *</c><br><br>

<c>No. 2

</c>


Speech of Signor Giolitti before the Italian Chamber of Deputies on the 5th December, 1914.



(Translated from the Official Report of the Proceedings of the Chamber.)



SIGNOR GIOLITTI: The President of the Council, when speaking of the declaration of neutrality made by Italy on the outbreak of war, recalled the fact that this decision was the subject of heated debates and divided counsels but that later, both in Italy and abroad, the view gradually prevailed that we were only exercising a right secured to us.



Therefore, inasmuch as I hold it necessary that Italy's loyal observance of international treaties shall be considered as being above any possibility of dispute--(Hear, hear)--I feel it my duty to recall a precedent, which proves that the interpretation placed by the Government on the Treaty of the Triple Alliance is the correct interpretation, and was admitted as correct in identical circumstances by the Allied Powers.



During the Balkan War, on the 9th August, 1913, about a year before the present war broke out, during my absence from Rome, I received from my hon. colleague, Signor di San Giuliano, the following telegram:--



"Austria has communicated to us and to Germany her intention of taking action against Servia, and defines such action as defensive, hoping to bring into operation the casus foederis of the Triple Alliances I which, on the contrary, I believe to be inapplicable.

(Sensation.)



"I am endeavouring to arrange for a combined effort with Germany to prevent such action on the part of Austria, but it may become necessary to state clearly that we do not consider such action, if it should be taken, as defensive, and that, therefore, we do not consider that the casus foederis arises.



"Please telegraph to me at Rome if you approve."



I replied:--



"If Austria intervenes against Servia it is clear that a casus foederis cannot be established. It is a step which she is taking on her own account, since there is no question of defence, inasmuch as no one is thinking of attacking her. It is necessary that a declaration to this effect should be made to Austria in the most formal manner, and we must hope for action on the part of Germany to dissuade Austria from this most perilous adventure." (Hear, hear.)



This course was taken, and our interpretation was upheld and recognised as proper since our action in no way disturbed our relations with the two Allied Powers. The declaration of neutrality made by the present Government conforms therefore in all respects to the precedents of Italian policy, and conforms also to an interpretation of the Treaty of Alliance which has been already accepted by the Allies.



I wish to recall this, because I think it right that in the eyes of all Europe it should appear that Italy has remained completely loyal to the observance of her pledges. (Loud applause.)



I should like now to make a very short statement in explanation of my vote on this question. I approve the Government's programme of an armed and vigilant neutrality for the guardianship of the vital interests of Italy. The Honourable President of the Council said truly that the vast upheaval becomes greater every day, and that it is given to none to foresee the end. The immense military and financial resources which the belligerent Powers have at their disposal exclude the possibility of an early termination of the conflict. As long as the necessity does not arise for us to come down into the arena to preserve our own vital interests, we ought all loyally to observe neutrality, since it is only by such loyal observance that we can preserve intact that great source of strength which is freedom of action. (Loud applause.)



In this conflict, which is without precedent in history, the political life of Italy may be at stake. The greatest prudence is therefore incumbent on all; and it is incumbent above all, not only on the Government and on Parliament, but also on that great force, the Press--(Hear, hear)--to keep a single eye to the great interests of Italy and to remember only that they are Italians. (Loud applause.)



In conclusion, I hope from the bottom of my heart that the men who at this supreme moment have the responsibility of Government may deserve the full gratitude of the country. (Loud cheers and applause, during which many Deputies went up to the speaker and congratulated him )



<c>* * * * * * *</c>