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            "1827": {
                "pageid": 1827,
                "ns": 0,
                "title": "Rennenkampf",
                "revisions": [
                    {
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                        "*": "<p align=\"right\"> [[Main_Page | WWI Document Archive ]] > [[WWI_Biographical_Dictionary|Alphabetical Index of WWI Biographies]] > [[R-Index]] > '''Rennenkampf''' </p><hr>\n\n[[image:MASTHD-C.GIF]]\n\n\n[[image:RENKAMPF.GIF]][[image:SPACER.GIF]]'''Rennenkampf, General Pavel Karl.''' (1854-1918).\n<BLOCKQUOTE> \nRennenkampf was a graduate of the Russian staff academy in St. Petersburg and was a well-known figure at the Tsarist Court. He was no stranger to active service, having served in China in 1900-1901. He commanded a cavalry division in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 and emerged from that conflict with his professional reputation enhanced.<BR><BR>\n\nAfter its catastrophic defeat by Japan, the Russian army was forced to modernize. Unfortunately, the officer corps split on the mechanics of such reform between the adherents of Sukhomlinov, the Minister of War, and those of Grand Duke Nicholas. As a result, army reforms were carried out in a muddled fashion and, particularly in such areas as logistics and heavy artillery, the army was much less prepared for what 1914 would bring than the German army was.<BR><BR>\n\nRennenkampf was the commander of the Vilna Military District when the war broke out and, upon mobilization, assumed command of the First Army. The war plan called for an invasion of East Prussia by Rennenkampf's First Army and Alexander Samsonov's Second Army with the objective of forcing the Germans to withdraw troops from the invasion of France.<BR><BR> \n\nFirst Army began the invasion of East Prussia on 12 August with cavalry probes. The bulk of the army crossed into German territory five days later. Almost immediately the Russians were engaged and beaten at Stalluponen by the German I Corps under General Hermann von Francois. He had acted in disobedience to orders because he was unwilling to cede any territory to the enemy voluntarily. But von Prittwitz, the commander of the German Eighth Army compelled him to withdraw before he could exploit his victory.<BR><BR>\n\nAs the Germans withdrew, Rennenkampf's army continued to march slowly into East Prussia. Von Prittwitz, at von Francois' urging, ordered an attack by the entire Eighth Army. The Battle of Gumbinnen (20 August) was a confused affair which resulted in a Russian tactical victory. However, Rennenkampf's supply services had all but collapsed. Artillery batteries were short of shells, the men were short of food and the horses were short of fodder. Rennenkampf sat idly while the entire Eighth Army concentrated against Samsonov's Second Army, surrounded it and destroyed it at the Battle of Tannenberg. While he was re-organizing his army. Rennenkampf made no effort to reconnoitre his front and was totally unaware that he had no significant German forces facing him.<BR><BR>\n\nThe Battle of Tannenberg was finished on 31 August. The Germans regrouped and used the railway system of East Prussia to concentrate against Rennenkampf's army. He was defeated in the Battle of the Masurian Lakes 9-14 September) and was forced to retreat from East Prussian soil. However, his army remained intact, despite certain German claims to the contrary.<BR><BR> \n\nThe Russian threat to East Prussia had forced the Germans to withdraw two infantry corps and a cavalry division from France, so it might be said to have accomplished its objective. But the price was high. In early 1915, the recriminations began. Rennenkampf's Baltic German heritage was noted and whispered questions about his loyalty circulated around St Petersburg. Finally, he was relieved of his command and then dismissed from the army.<BR><BR>\n\nIn early 1918 the Bolsheviks offered him a commission in the newly-formed Red Army. Rennenkampf declined-and was shot by the Bolsheviks.\n\n\n</BLOCKQUOTE>\n\n\n[[Image:ENDMARK.GIF]]  <I>TD</I>\n\n\n<hr>\n<p align=\"right\"> [[Main_Page | WWI Document Archive ]] > [[WWI_Biographical_Dictionary|Alphabetical Index of WWI Biographies]] > [[R-Index]] > '''Rennenkampf''' </p><hr>"
                    }
                ]
            },
            "2358": {
                "pageid": 2358,
                "ns": 0,
                "title": "Report of the Agent General for Reparation Payments",
                "revisions": [
                    {
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                        "*": "<!doctype html public \"-//w3c//dtd html 4.0 transitional//en\">\n<html>\n<head>\n   <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=iso-8859-1\">\n   <meta name=\"GENERATOR\" content=\"Mozilla/4.7 (Macintosh; I; PPC) [Netscape]\">\n   <title>Report of the Agent General for Reparations Payments, June 10, 1927. Contents.</title>\n</head>\n<body bgcolor=\"#FFFFFF\">\n\n<center><font face=\"Times\"><font color=\"#0000FF\"><font size=+3>REPORT OF\nTHE</font></font></font>\n<br><font color=\"#0000FF\"><font size=+3>AGENT GENERAL</font></font>\n<br><font color=\"#0000FF\"><font size=+3>FOR</font></font>\n<br><font color=\"#0000FF\"><font size=+3>REPARATION PAYMENTS</font></font>\n<br><br><font size=+2>[S. PARKER GILBERT]</font>\n<br><br><font color=\"#0000FF\"><font size=+2>June 10, 1927</font></font>\n<br><font color=\"#0000FF\"><font size=+2>BERLIN</font></font></center>\n\n<center><table BORDER CELLPADDING=5 WIDTH=\"184\" >\n<tr>\n<td VALIGN=TOP>\n<center><font face=\"Times\">Richard B. Wigglesworth</font>\n<br><font face=\"Times\">Assistant to the Agent General</font>\n<br><font face=\"Times\">for Reparations Payments</font>\n<br><font face=\"Times\">33 Luisenstrasse, Berlin</font>\n<br><font face=\"Times\">18, Rue de Tilsitt, Paris</font></center>\n</td>\n</tr>\n</table></center>\n\n<center><font face=\"Times\">[<i>above business card found in book</i>]</font></center>\n\n<br><br>.\n<center>\n<br><br><a NAME=\"TC\"></a><font size=+2>Table of Contents.</font></center>\n\n'''[[Introduction]]'''<br><br>\n'''[[I. The Administration of the Plan]]'''\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar1.htm#1a\">a. </a>The Payment of Reparations by\nGermany\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar1.htm#1a1\">1. </a>The Composition of the Payments\n<br><a href=\"repar1.htm#1a2\">2. </a>Payments on Account of the Third Annuity\n<br><a href=\"repar1.htm#1a3\">3. </a>The Arrangements for the Fourth Annuity</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar1.htm#1b\">b. </a>The Distribution of the Annuity\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar1.htm#1b1\">1. </a>The Basis of Distribution\n<br><a href=\"repar1.htm#1b2\">2. </a>The Agent General's Receipts and Payments\n<br><a href=\"repar1.htm#1b3\">3. </a>The Use of the Funds by the Creditor\nPowers</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar1.htm#1c\">c. </a>The Management of the Annuity\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar1.htm#1c1\">1. </a>Regulation of Programmes\n<br><a href=\"repar1.htm#1c2\">2. </a>Settlement of Old Accounts\n<br><a href=\"repar1.htm#1c3\">3. </a>Administrative Organization</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar1.htm#1d\">d. </a>Arbitration Proceedings\n<br><br><a href=\"repar1.htm#1e\">e. </a>The German External Loan, 1924</blockquote>\n<font size=+1><a href=\"repar2.htm\">II. The Transfer Committee</a></font>\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar2.htm#2a\">a.</a> Summary of Transfer Operations\n<br><a href=\"repar2.htm#2b\">b.</a> Development of Deliveries in Kind\n<br><a href=\"repar2.htm#2c\">c.</a> The German Railway and Industrial Bonds</blockquote>\n<font size=+1><a href=\"repar3.htm\">III. The Work of the Commissioners and\nTrustees</a></font>\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar3.htm#3a\">a.</a> The Commissioner of the Reichsbank\n<br><a href=\"repar3.htm#3b\">b.</a> The Commissioner for the German Railways\n<br><a href=\"repar3.htm#3c\">c.</a> The Commissioner of Controlled Revenues\n<br><a href=\"repar3.htm#3d\">d.</a> The Trustee for the German Railway Bonds\n<br><a href=\"repar3.htm#3e\">e.</a> The Trustee for the German Industrial\nDebentures</blockquote>\n<font size=+1><a href=\"repar4a.htm\">IV. The German Budget</a></font>\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar4a.htm#4a\">a.</a> The Interest of the Experts'\nPlan in the German Budget\n<br><br><a href=\"repar4a.htm#4b\">b.</a> The Budget of the Reich\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar4a.htm#4b1\">1.</a> Comparative Budget Statements\n<br><br><a href=\"repar4a.htm#4b2\">2.</a> Explanation of the Budget Statements\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar4a.htm#4b2a\">(a)</a> The division between the\nordinary and extraordinary budgets\n<br><a href=\"repar4a.htm#4b2b\">(b)</a> Transfers from year to year\n<br><a href=\"repar4a.htm#4b2c\">(c)</a> Non-recurrent expenditures\n<br><a href=\"repar4a.htm#4b2d\">(d)</a> Transactions in the public debt</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3\">3.</a> Detailed Analysis of the Budget Statements\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3a\">(a)</a> Revenues\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3a1\">(1)</a> Income, corporation and\nturnover taxes, etc\n<br><a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3a2\">(2)</a> Customs and taxes on consumption,\netc. .\n<br><a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3a3\">(3)</a> Administrative and other revenues</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3b\">(b)</a> Expenditures\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3b1\">(1)</a> Payments to the States\nand communes\n<br><a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3b2\">(2)</a> General administrative expenditures\n<br><a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3b3\">(3)</a> Unemployment relief\n<br><a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3b4\">(4)</a> Payments in respect of the revalorized\ndebt\n<br><a href=\"repar4b.htm#4b3b5\">(5)</a> Investments, loans, etc .</blockquote>\n</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar4c.htm#4b4\">4.</a> Observations on the Budget of the Reich\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar4c.htm#4b4a\">(a)</a> General observations\n<br><a href=\"repar4c.htm#4b4b\">(b)</a> Financial relations with the States\nand communes\n<br><a href=\"repar4c.htm#4b4c\">(c)</a> The extraordinary budget and the\nprogramme of borrowing\n<br><a href=\"repar4c.htm#4b4d\">(d)</a> Obscurity of accounts and budgetary\npractice</blockquote>\n</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar4c.htm#4c\">c.</a> The Budgets of the States and Communes\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar4c.htm#4c1\">1.</a> General Observations\n<br><a href=\"repar4c.htm#4c2\">2.</a> The Budget of the State of Prussia</blockquote>\n</blockquote>\n<font size=+1><a href=\"repar5.htm\">V. The German Public Debt</a></font>\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar5.htm#5a\">a.</a> The Public Debt of the Reich\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar5.htm#5a1\">1.</a> Statement of the Public Debt\n<br><a href=\"repar5.htm#5a2\">2.</a> Revaluation of Paper Mark Loans</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar5.htm#5b\">b.</a> The Public Debts of the States and Communes</blockquote>\n<font size=+1><a href=\"repar6.htm\">VI. German Credit Conditions and the\nCurrency</a></font>\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a\">a.</a> Credit Conditions, November,\n1926, to May, 1927\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a1\">1.</a> Position of the Reichsbank\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a1a\">(a)</a> Limitation of foreign credits\n<br><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a1b\">(b)</a> The outflow of funds\n<br><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a1c\">(c)</a> Effects of the outflow of funds\n<br><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a1d\">(d)</a> Reichsbank credit policy</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar6.htm#6a2\">2.</a> The Administration of the Public Funds\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a2a\">(a)</a> The Reich Loan, 1927\n<br><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a2b\">(b)</a> Funds of public and quasi-public\nenterprises **\n<br><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a2c\">(c)</a> The Gold Discount Bank</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar6.htm#6a3\">3.</a> Volume of Credit\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a2a\">(a)</a> Capital issues\n<br><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a2b\">(b)</a> Private bank credit\n<br><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a2c\">(c)</a> Public bank credit\n<br><a href=\"repar6.htm#6a2d\">(d)</a> Savings</blockquote>\n</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar6.htm#6b\">b.</a> The German Currency</blockquote>\n<font size=+1><a href=\"repar7.htm\">VII. Germany's Foreign Trade</a></font>\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar7.htm#7a\">a.</a> The Trade Balance\n<br><a href=\"repar7.htm#7b\">b.</a> Detailed Analysis of Imports and Exports</blockquote>\n<font size=+1><a href=\"repar8.htm\">VIII. German Business Conditions</a></font>\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar8.htm#8a\">a.</a> Phases of Readjustment\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar8.htm#8a1\">1.</a> Commercial Failures and Liquidations\n<br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8a2\">2..</a> Unemployment</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar8.htm#8b\">b.</a> Physical Volume of Production\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar8.htm#8b1\">1.</a> Coal and Lignite\n<br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8b2\">2.</a> Iron and Steel\n<br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8b3\">3.</a> Textiles\n<br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8b4\">4.</a> Potash</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar8.htm#8c\">c.</a> Agricultural Yield\n<br><br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8d\">d.</a> Housing Conditions and Building Activity\n<br><br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8e\">e.</a> Domestic Trade\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar8.htm#8e1\">1.</a> Railway Traffic\n<br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8e2\">2.</a> Clearings\n<br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8e3\">3.</a> Turnover Tax Returns\n<br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8e4\">4.</a> Post Office Transactions</blockquote>\n<a href=\"repar8.htm#8f\">f.</a> Consumption\n<br><br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8g\">g.</a> Wages\n<br><br><a href=\"repar8.htm#8h\">h.</a> Prices</blockquote>\n<font size=+1><a href=\"repar9.htm\">IX. Conclusions</a></font>\n<br><br>.\n<blockquote><font size=+2><a href=\"repar9.htm#ex\">Exhibits</a>.</font>\n<br><br><font size=+2><a href=\"images/exhibit1.gif\">I</a>. </font>Composition\nof the German Annuity under the Experts' Plan\n<br><br><font size=+2><a href=\"exh2-4.htm#exhibit2\">II</a>.</font> Revised Distribution\nof Second Annuity, showing Shares of the Respective Powers\n<br><br><font size=+2><a href=\"exh2-4.htm#exhibit3\">III</a>. </font>Revised\nDistribution of Third Annuity, showing Shares of the Respective Powers\n<br><br><font size=+2><a href=\"exh2-4.htm#exhibit4\">IV</a>.</font> Balance Sheet\nof the Agent General for Reparation Payments, as of May 31, 1927\n<br><br><font size=+2><a href=\"exh5-6.htm#exhibit5\">V</a>.</font> Statement\nshowing Receipts and Payments of the Agent General for Reparation Payments\nduring the Period September 1, 1926-May 31, 1927\n<br><br><font size=+2><a href=\"exh5-6.htm#exhibit6\">VI</a>.</font> Distribution\namong the Powers of Amounts Available for Expenditure during the Period\nSeptember 1, 1926-May 31, 1927\n<br><br><font size=+2><a href=\"exh7-9.htm#exhibit7\">VII</a>.</font> Analysis\nof Payments and Accounts Payable for the Period September 1, 1926-May 31,\n1927, according to Category of Expenditure\n<br><br><font size=+2><a href=\"exh7-9.htm#exhibit8\">VIII</a>.</font> Summary\nof Personnel, as of May 31, 1927\n<br><br><font size=+2><a href=\"exh7-9.htm#exhibit9\">IX</a>.</font> Statement\nof Condition of German External Loan, 1924, as of April 15, 1927</blockquote>\n\n<hr ALIGN=LEFT>\n<blockquote><a href=\"repar1.htm\"><img SRC=\"2b.gif\" BORDER=0 NATURALSIZEFLAG=\"3\" height=24 width=25 align=CENTER></a><font size=+1><a href=\"repar1.htm\">Introduction\nand Chapter One</a></font></blockquote>\n\n</body>\n</html>"
                    }
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}