Allenby, Edmund Henry Hynman, First Viscount Allenby of Megiddo. (1861-1931) Born Nottinghamshire, England.
Served on Kitchener's staff and in the field in South Africa during the Boer War. Commanded the cavalry division (later cavalry corps) in the BEF, August-November 1914, then V Corps and then Third Army (October 1915). Replaced Sir Archibald Murray as commander, British Forces in Egypt, (June, 1917). Allenby employed a surprise attack at Beersheba to win the third Battle of Gaza (31 October 1917) and pushed forward to Jerusalem, where the Turks were routed at Junction Station (13-15 November) and the water supplies captured, and entered Jerusalem on 10 December 1917. Allenby's troops were systematically re-shipped to France, leaving him without re-inforcements, causing the failure of his attack on Amman in March and April 1918 -- eventually enough troops were made available from Australia, New Zealand, India and South Africa, along with the Arab Army, to allow the resumption of offens ive operations in July and August 1918. The Turkish front-line was destroyed at Megiddo (Armageddon) on 19-21 September 1918, and Allenby's forces pursued the Turkish troops and prevented any re-organisation. The capture of Damascus, (1 October), Homs, (16 October), and Aleppo (25 October) indicate the speed and mobility of his offensive. Further, the complete domination of Palestine and Syria was the major factor in causing Turkey to capitulate on 30 October 1918. High Commissioner of Egypt (1919-19 25).
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