Part X, Section V - XI, Section V
<TITLE> The Treaty of Trianon, June 4, 1920</TITLE>
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Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary</h2>
And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920
And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920
Part X, Section V - XI, Section V
Go To <a href="tri1.htm">Part I - IV</a> | Go To <a href="tri2.htm">Part V - VIII</a> | Go To <a href="tri3.htm"> Part IX - X, Section V </a> | Go To <a href="tri5.htm"> Part XIII - Protocol & Declaration</a>
MIXED ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL.
(a) Within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, a Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be established between each of the Allied and Associated Powers on the one hand and Hungary on the other hand Each such Tribunal shall consist of three members. Each of the Governments concerned shall appoint one of these members. The President shall be chosen by agreement between the two Governments concerned.
In case of failure to reach agreement, the President of the Tribunal and two other persons, either of whom may in case of need take his place, shall be chosen by the Council of the League of Nations, or, until this is set up, by M. Gustav Ador if he is willing. These persons shall be nationals of Powers that have remained neutral during the war.
If in case there is a vacancy a Government does not proceed within a period of one month to appoint as provided above a member of the Tribunal, such member shall be chosen by the other Government from the two persons mentioned above other than the President.
The decision of the majority of the members of the Tribunal shall be the decision of the Tribunal. (b) The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals established pursuant to paragraph (a) shall decide all questions within their competence under Sections III, IV, V and VII.
In addition, all questions, whatsoever their nature, relating to contracts concluded before the coming into force of the present Treaty between nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers and Hungarian nationals shall be decided by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, always excepting questions which, under the laws of the Allied, Associated or Neutral Powers, are within the jurisdiction of the national courts of those Powers. SucEI questions shall be decided by the national courts in question, to the exclusion of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. The party who is a national of an Allied or Associated Power may nevertheless bring the case before the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal if this is not prohibited by the laws of his country.
(c) If the number of cases justifies it, additional members shall be appointed and each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall sit in divisions. Each of these divisions will be constituted as above.
(d) Each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal will settle its own procedure except in so far as it is provided in the following Annex, and is empowered to award the sums to be paid by the loser in respect of the costs and expenses of the proceedings.
(e) Each Government will pay the remuneration of the member of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal appointed by it and of any agent whom it may appoint to represent it before the Tribunal. The remuneration of the President will be determined by special agreement between the Governments concerned; and this remuneration and the joint expenses of each Tribunal will be paid by the two Governments in equal moieties.
(f) The High Contracting Parties agree that their courts and authorities shall render to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals direct all the assistance in their power, particularly as regards transmitting notices and collecting evidence.
(g) The High Contracting Parties agree to regard the decisions of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal as final and conclusive, and to render them binding upon their nationals.
1. Should one of the members of the Tribunal either die, retire or be unable for any reason whatever to discharge his functions, the same procedure will be followed for filling the vacancy as was followed for appointing him.
2. The Tribunal may adopt such rules of procedure as shall be in accordance with justice and equity and decide the order and time at which each party must conclude its arguments, and may arrange all formalities required for dealing with the evidence.
3. The agent and counsel of the parties on each side are authorised to present orally and in writing to the Tribunal arguments in support or in defence of each case.
4. The Tribunal shall keep record of the questions and cases submitted and the proceedings thereon, with the dates of such proceedings.
5. Each of the Powers concerned may appoint a secretary. These secretaries shall act together as joint secretaries of the Tribunal and shall be subject to its direction. The Tribunal may appoint and employ any other necessary officer or officers to assist in the performance of its duties.
6. The Tribunal shall decide all questions and matters submitted upon such evidence and information as may be furnished by the parties concerned.
7. The High Contracting Parties agree to give the Tribunal all facilities and information required by it for carrying out its investigations.
8. The language in which the proceedings shall be conducted shall, unless otherwise agreed, be English, French, Italian or Japanese as may be determined by the Allied or Associated Power concerned.
9. The place and time for the meetings of each Tribunal shall be determined by the President of the Tribunal.
Whenever a competent court has given or gives a decision in a case covered by Sections III, IV, V or VII, and such decision is inconsistent with the provisions of such Sections, the party who is prejudiced by the decision shall be entitled to obtain redress which shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. At the request of the national of an Allied or Associated Power, the redress may, whenever possible, be effected by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal directing the replacement of the parties in the position occupied by them before the judgment was given by the court of the former Kingdom of Hungary.
Subject to the stipulations of the present Treaty, rights of industrial, literary and artistic property, as such property is defined by the International Conventions of Paris and of Berne, mentioned in Articles 220 and 222, shall be re-established or restored, as from the coming into force of the present Treaty, in the territories of the High Contracting Parties, in favour of the persons entitled to the benefit of them at the moment when the state of war commenced, or their legal representatives. Equally, rights which, except for the war, would have been acquired during the war in consequence ol an application made for the protection of industrial property, or the publication of a literary or artistic work, shall be recognised and established in favour of those persons who would have b en entitled thereto, from the coming into force of the present Treaty. Nevertheless, all acts done by virtue of the special measures taken during the war under legislative, executive or administrative authority of any Allied or Associated Power in regard to the rights of nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary in industrial, literary or artistic property shall remain in force and shall continue to maintain their full effect.
No claim shall be made or action brought by Hungary or Hungarian nationals or by or on behalf of nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary in respect of the use during the war by the Government of any Allied or Associated Power, or by any persons acting on behalf or with the assent of such Government of any rights in industrial, literary or artistic property, nor in respect of the sale, offering for sale, or use of any products, articles or apparatus whatsoever to which such rights applied.
Unless the legislation of any one of the Allied or Associated Powers in force at the moment of the signature of the present Treaty otherwise directs, sums due or paid in respect of the property of persons referred to in Article 232 (b) in virtue of any act or operation resulting from the execution of the special measures mentioned in the second paragraph of this Article shall be dealt with in the same way as other sums due to such persons are directed to be dealt with by the present Treaty; and sums produced by any special measures taken by the Government of the former Kingdom of Hungary in respect of rights in industrial, literary or artistic property belonging to the nationals of the Allied or Associated Powers shall be considered and treated in the same way as other debts due from Hungarian nationals.
Each of the Allied and Associated Powers reserves to itself the right to impose such limitations, conditions or restrictions on rights of industrial, literary or artistic property (with the exception of trade-marks) acquired before or during the war, or which may be subsequently acquired in accordance with its legislation, by Hungarian nationals, whether by granting licences, or by the working, or by preserving control over their exploitation, or in any other way, as may be considered necessary for national defence, or in the public interest, or for assuring the fair treatment by Hungary of the rights of industrial, literary and artistic property held in Hungarian territory by its nationals, or for securing the due fulfilment of all the obligations undertaken by Hungary in the present Treaty. As regards rights of industrial, literary and artistic property acquired after the coming into
force of the present Treaty, the right so reserved by the Allied and Associated Powers shall only be exercised in cases where these limitations, conditions or restrictions may be considered necessary for national defence or in the public interest. In the event of the application of the provisions of the preceding paragraph by any Allied or Associated Power, there shall be paid reasonab'e indemnities or royalties, which shall be dealt with in the same way as other sums due to Hungarian nationals are directed to be dealt with by the present Treaty.
Each of the Allied or Associated Powers reserves the right to treat as void and of no effect any transfer in whole or in part of or other dealing with rights of or in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property effected after July 28, I914, or in the future, which would have the result of deleating the objects of the provisions of this Article.
The provisions of this Article shall not apply to rights in industrial, literary or artistic property which have been dealt with in the liquidation of businesses or companies under war legislation by the Allied or Associated Powers, or which may be so dealt with by virtue of Article 232, paragraph (b).
A minimum of one year after the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be accorded to the nationals of the High Contracting Parties, without extension fees or other penalty, in order to enable such persons to accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, pay any fees, and generally satisfy any obligation prescribed by the laws or regulations of the respective States relating to the obtaining, preserving or opposing rights to, or in respect of, industrial property either acquired before July 28, 1914, or which, except for the war, might have been acquired since that date as a result of an application made before the war or during its continuance, but nothing in this Article shall give any right to re-open interference proceedings in the United States of America where a final hearing has taken place.
All rights in, or in respect of, such property which may have lapsed by reason of any failure to accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, or make any payment, shall revive, but subject in the case of patents and designs to the imposition of such conditions as each Allied or Associated Power may deem reasonably necessary for the protection of persons who have manufactured or made use of the subject-matter of such property while the rights had lapsed. Further, where rights to patents or designs belonging to Hungarian nationals are revived under this Article, they shall be subject in respect of the grant of licences to the same provisions as would have been applicable to them during the war, as well as to all the provisions of the present Treaty.
The period from July 28, 1914, until the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be excluded in considering the time within which a patent should be worked or a trade-mark or design used, and it is further agreed that no patent, registered trademark or design in force on July 28, 1914, shall be subject to revocation or cancellation by reason only of the failure to work such patent or use such trade-mark or design for two years after the coming into force of the present Treaty.
The rights of priority provided by Article 4 of the International Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property of Paris of March 20, 1883, revised at Washington in 19II, or by any other Convention or Statute, for the filing or registration of applications for patents or models of utility, and for the registration of trade-marks, designs and models which had not expired on July 28, I914, and those which have arisen during the war, or would have arisen but for the war, shall be extended by each of the High Contracting Parties in favour of all nationals of the other High Contracting Parties for a period of six months after the coming into force of the present Treaty. Nevertheless, such extension shall in no way affect the right of any of the High Contracting Parties or of any person who before the coming into force of the present Treaty was bona Jide in possession of any rights of industrial property conflicting with rights applied for by another who claims rights of priority in respect of them, to exercise such rights by itself or himself personally, or by such agents or licensees as derived their rights from it or him before the coming into force of the present Treaty; and such persons shall not be amenable to any action or other process of law in respect of infringement.
No action shall be brought and no claim made by nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary, or by persons residing or carry hlg on business within the territory of that Kingdom on the one part, and on the other part by persons residing or carrying on business in the territory of the AlLied or Associated Powerss or persons who are nationals of such Powers respectively, or by any one deriving title during the war from such persons, by reason of any action which has taken place within the territory of the other party between the date of the existence of a state of war and that of the coming into force of the present Treaty, which might constitute an infringement of the rights of industrial property or rights of literary and artistic property, either existing at any time during the war or revived under the provisions of Articles 242 and 243.
Equally, no action for infringement of industrial, literary or artistic property rights by such persons shall at any time be permissible in respect of the sale or offering for sale for a period of one year after the signature of the present Treaty in the territories of the Allied or Associated Powers on the one hand or Hungary on the other, of products or articles manufactured, or of literary or artistic works published, during the period between the existence of a state of war and the signature of the present Treaty, or against those who have acquired and continue to use them. It is understood, nevertheless, that this provision shall not apply when the possessor of the rights was domiciled or had an industrial or commercial establishment in the districts occupied by the Austro-Hungarian armies during the war.
This Article shall not apply as between the United States of America on the one hand and Hungary on the other.
Licences in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property concluded before the war between nationals of the Allied or Associated Powers or persons residing in their territory or carrying on business therein, on the one part, and nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary, on the other part, shall be considered as cancelled as from the date of the existence of a state of war between the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Allied or Associated Power. But, in any case, the former beneficiary of a contract of this kind shall have the right, within a period of six months after the coming into force of the present Treaty, to demand from the proprietor of the rights the grant of a new licence, the conditions of which, in default of agreement between the parties, shall be fixed by the duly qualified tribunal in the country under whose legislation the rights had been acquired, except in the case of licences held in respect of rights acquired under the law of the former Kingdom of Hungary. In such cases the conditions shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal referred to in Section VI of this Part. The tribunal may, if necessary, fix also the amount which it may deem just should be paid by reason of the use of the rights during the war.
No licence in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property, granted under the special war legislation of any Allied or Associated Power, shall be affected by the continued existence of any licence entered into before the war, but shall remain valid and of full effect, and a licence so granted to the former beneficiary of a licence entered into before the war shall be considered as substituted for such licence.
Where sums have been paid during the war in respect of the rights of persons referred to in Article 232 (b) by virtue of a licence or agreement concluded before the war in respect of rights of industrial property or for the reproduction or the representation of literary, dramatic or artistic works, these sums shall be dealt with in the same manner as other debts or credits of such persons as provided by the present Treaty.
This Article shall not apply as between the United States of America on the one hand and Hungary on the other.
SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO TRANSFERRED TERRITORY.
Of the individuals and juridical persons previously nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary, including Bosnia-Herzegovinians, those who acquire ipso facto under the present Treaty the nationality of an Allied or Associated Power are designated in the provisions which follow by the expression "nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary-" the remainder are designated by the expression "Hungarian nationals."
The inhabitants of territories transferred by virtue of the present Treaty shall, notwithstanding this transfer and the change of nationality consequent thereon, continue to enjoy in Hungary all the rights in industrial, literary and artistic property to which they were entitled under the legislation in force at the time of the transfer.
The questions concerning the nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary, as well as Hungarian nationals, their rights, privileges and property, which are not dealt with in the present Treaty, or in the Treaty prepared for the purpose of regulating certain immediate relations between the States to which territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy has been transferred, or arising from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, shall form the subject of special conventions between the States concerned, including Hungary; such conventions shall not in any way conflict with the provisions of the present Treaty.
For this purpose it is agreed that within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty a Conference of delegates of the States in question shall take place.
The Hungarian Government shall without delay restore to nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary their property, rights and interests situated in Hungarian territory. The amount of taxes and imposts on capital which have been levied or increased on the property, rights and interests of nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary since November 3, 1918, or which shall be levied or increased until restitution in accordance with the provisions of the present Treaty, or, in the case of property, rights and interests which have not been subjected to exceptional measures of war, until three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, shall be returned to the owners.
The property, rights and interests restored shall not be subject to any tax levied in respect of any other property or any other business owned by the same person after such property had been removed from Hungary or such business had ceased to be carried on therein.
If taxes of any kind have been paid in anticipation in respect of property, rights and interests removed from Hungary, the proportion of such taxes paid for any period subsequent to the removal of the property, rights and interests in question shall be returned to the owners. Cash assets shall be paid in the currency and at the rate of exchange provided for the case of debts under Articles 231 (d) and 254.
Legacies, donations and funds given or established in the former Kingdom of Hungary for the benefit of nationals of that Kingdom shall be placed by Hungary, so far as the funds in question are in her territory, at the disposition of the Allied or Associated Power of which the persons in question are now, or become, under the provisions of the present Treaty, or of any Treaties concluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement, nationals, in the condition in which these funds were on July 28, 1914, taking account of payments properly made for the purpose of the trust.
Where under the terms of family trusts which continue to be administered by the Hungarian State the rights of the beneficiaries are subject to their retaining Hungarian nationality, the presumptive beneficiaries will retain their right to pensions, expenses of education, dowries and similar privileges, even if they acquire now or subsequently, under the present Treaty or any Treaties concluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement, the nationality of one of the States to which territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary is transferred by the said Treaties. Where in consequence of the extinction of a family in whose favour such a trust had been constituted the funds would revert to the Hungarian State or to an institution of that State, such right of succession will pass to the State to which the last beneficiary belonged.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 232 and the Annex to Section IV the property, rights and interests of Hungarian nationals or companies controlled by them situated in the territories which formed part of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy shall not be subject to retention or liquidation in accordance with these provisions.
Such property, rights and interests shall be restored to their owners freed from any measure of this kind, or from any other measure of transfer, compuisory administration or sequestration, taken since November 3, 1918, until the coming into force of the present Treaty, in the condition in which they were before the application of the measures in question.
Claims made by Hungarian nationals under this Article shall be submitted to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for by Article 239.
The property, rights and interests here referred to do not include property which is the subject of Article 191, Part IX (Financial Clauses).
Nothing in this Article shall affect the provisions laid down in Part VIII (Reparation) Section I, Annex III as to property of Hungarian nationals in ships and boats.
All contracts for the sale of goods for delivery by sea concluded before January 1, 1917, between nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary of the one part and the administrations of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Hungary, or Bosnia-Herzegovina, or Hungarian nationals of the other part shall be annulled, except in respect of any debt or other pecuniary obligation arising out of any act done or money paid thereunder. All other contracts between such parties which were made before November 1, 1918, and were in force at that date shall be maintained.
With regard to prescriptions, limitations and forfeitures in the transferred territories, the provisions of Articles 235 and 236 shall be applied with substitution for the expression "outbreak of wart of the expression "date, which shall be fixed by administrative decision of each Allied or Associated Power, at which relations between the parties became impossible in fact or in law," and for the expression "duration of the war" of the expression "period between the date above indicated and that of the coming into force of the present Treaty."
Hungary undertakes not to impede in any way the transfer of property, rights or interests belonging to a company incorporated in accordance with the laws of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, in which Allied or Associated nationals are interested, to a company incorporated in accordance with the laws of any other Power, to facilitate all measures necessary for giving effect to such transfer, and to render any assistance which may be required for effecting the restoration to Allied or Associated nationals, or to companies in which they are interested, of their property, rights or interests whether in Hungary or in transferred territory.
Section III, except Article 231 (d), shall not apply to debts contracted between Hungarian nationals and nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary.
Subject to the special provisions laid down in Article 231 (d) for the case of the new States, these debts shall be paid in the legal currency at the time of payment of the State of which the national of the former Kingdom of Hungary has become a national, and the rate of exchange applicable shall be the average rate quoted on the Geneva Exchange during the two months preceding November 1, 1918.
Insurance companies whose principal place of business was in territory which previously formed part of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy shall have the right to carry on their business in Hungarian territory for a period of ten years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, without the rights which they previously enjoyed being affected in any way by the change of nationality.
During the above period the operations of such companies shall not be subjected by Hungary to any higher tax or charge than shall be imposed on the operations of national companies. No measure in derogation of their rights of property shall be imposed upon them which is not equally applied to the property rights or interests of Hungarian insurance companies; adequate compensation shall be paid in the event of the application of any such measures.
These provisions shall only apply so long as Hungarian insurance companies previously carrying on business in the transferred territories, even if their principal place of business was outside such territories, are reciprocally accorded a similar right to carry on their business therein.
After the period of ten years above referred to, the provisions of Article 211 of the present Treaty shall apply in regard to the Allied and Associated companies in question.
The provisions of this Article shall apply similarly to cooperative societies, provided that the legal position of such societies places upon their members effective responsibility for all operations and contracts within the objects of such societies.
Special agreements will determine the division of the property of associations or public corporations carrying on their functions in territory which is divided in consequence of the present Treaty.
States to which territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy is transferred, and States arising from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, shall recognise and give effect to rights of industrial, literary and artistic property in force in the territory at the time when it passes to the State in question, or re-established or restored in accordance with the provisions of Article 241 of the present Treaty. These rights shall remain in force in that territory for the same period as that for which they would have remained in force under the law of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
A special convention shall determine all questions relative to the records, registers and copies in connection with the protection of industrial, literary or artistic property, and fix their eventual transmission or communication by the Offices of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy to the Offices of the States to which are transferred territory of the said Monarchy and to the Of fices of new States.
Without prejudice to other provisions of the present Treaty, the Hungarian Government undertakes so far as it is concerned to hand over to any Power to which territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy is transferred, or which arises from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, such portion of the reserves accumulated by the Governments or the administrations of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, or by public or private organisations under their control, as is attributable to the carrying on of Social or State Insurance in such territory The Powers to which these funds are handed over must apply them to the performance of the obligations arising from such insurance.
The conditions of the delivery will be determined by special conventions to be concluded between the Hungarian Government and the Governments concerned.
In case these special conventions are not concluded in accordance with the above paragraph within three months after the coming into force of the present Treaty, the conditions of transfer shall in each case be referred to a Commission of five members one of whom shall be appointed by the Hungarian Government, one by the other interested Government and three by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office from the nationals of other States. This Commission shall by majority vote within three months after appointment adopt recommendations for submission to the Council of the League of Nations, and the decisions of the Council shall forthwith be accepted as final by Hungary and the other Government concerned.
The provisions of the present Section referring to the relations between Hungary or Hungarian nationals and the nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary apply to relations of the same nature between Hungary or Hungarian nationals and the nationals of the former Austrian Empire referred to in Article 236 of the Treaty of Peace with Austria.
Reciprocally, the provisions of Section VIII of Part X of the said Treaty referring to the relations between Austria or Austrian nationals and the nationals of the former Austrian Empire apply to relations of the same nature between Austria or Austrian nationals and the nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary referred to in Article 246 of the present Treaty.
The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall have the liberty of passage and landing over and in the territory of Hungary, and shall enjoy the same privileges as Hungarian aircraft, particularly in case of distress.
The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall, while in transit to any foreign country whatever, enjoy the right of flying over the territory of Hungary without landing, subject always to any regulations which may be made by Hungary, and which shall be applicable equally to the aircraft of Hungary and to those of the Allied and Associated countries.
All aerodromes in Hungary open to national public traffic shall be open for the aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers, and in any such aerodrome such aircraft shall be treated on a footing of equality with Hungarian aircraft as regards charges of every description, including charges for landing and accommodation.
Subject to the present provisions, the rights of passage, transit and landing provided for in Articles 260, 261 and 262 are subject to the observance of such regulations as Hungary may consider it necessary to enact, but such regulations shall be applied without distinction to Hungarian aircraft and to those of the Allied and Associated countries.
Certificates of nationality, airworthiness, or competency and licences, issued or recognised as valid by any of the Allied or Associated Powers, shall be recognised in Hungary as valid and as equivalent to the certificates and licences issued by Hungary.
As regards internal commercial air traffic, the aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy in Hungary most favoured nation treatment.
Hungary undertakes to enforce the necessary measures to ensure that all Hungarian aircraft fiying over her territory shall comply with the Rules as to lights and signals, Rules of the Air and Rules for Air Traffic on and in the neighbourhood of aerodromes, which have been laid down in the Convention relative to Aerial Navigation concluded between the Allied and Associated Powers.
The obligations imposed by the preceding provisions shall remain in force until January 1, 1923, unless before that date Hungary shall have been admitted into the League of Nations or shall have been authorised by consent of the Allied and Associated Powers to adhere to the Convention relative to Aerial Navigation concluded between those Powers.
PORTS, WATERWAYS AND RAILWAYS
Hungary undertakes to grant freedom of transit through her territories on the routes most convenient for international transit, either by rail, navigable waterway or canal, to persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and mails coming from or going to the territories of any of the Allied and Associated Powers, whether contiguous or not.
Such persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and mails shall not be subjected to any transit duty or to any undue delays or restrictions, and shall be entitled in Hungary to national treatment as regards charges, facilities and all other matters.
Goods in transit shall be exempt from all customs or other similar duties.
All charges imposed on transport in transit shall be reasonable, having regard to the conditions of the traffic. No charge, facility or restriction shall depend directly or indirectly on the ownership or on the nationality of the ship or other means of transport on which any part of the through journey has been, or is to be, accomplished.
Hungary undertakes neither to impose nor to maintain any control over transmigration traffic through her territories beyond measures necessary to ensure that passengers are bona fide in transit; nor to allow any shipping company or any other private body, corporation or person interested in the traffic to take any part whatever in, or to exercise any direct or indirect influence over, any administrative service that may be necessary for this purpose.
Hungary undertakes to make no discrimination or preference, direct or indirect, in the duties, charges and prohibitions relating to importations into or exportations from her territories, or, subject to the special engagements contained in the present Treaty, in the charges and conditions of transport of goods or persons entering or leaving her territories, based on the frontier crossed; or on the kind, ownership or flag of the means of transport (including aircraft) employed; or on the original or immediate place of departure of the vessel, wagon or aircraft, or other means of transport employed, or its ultimate or intermediate destination, or on the route of or places of transhipment on the journey; or on whether the goods are imported or exported directly through a Hungarian port or indirectly through a foreign port; or on whether the goods are imported or exported by land or by air.
Hungary particularly undertakes not to establish against the ports and vessels of any of the Allied and Associated Powers any surtax or any direct or indirect bounty for export or import by Hungarian ports or ships, or by those of another Power, for example by means of combined tariffs. She further undertakes that persons or goods passing through a port or using a vessel of any of the Allied and Associated Powers shall not be subjected to any formality or delay whatever to which such persons or goods would not be subjected if they passed through a Hungarian port or a port of any other Power, or used a Hungarian vessel or a vessel of any other Power.
All necessary administrative and technical measures shall be taken to expedite, as much as possible, the transmission of goods across the Hungarian frontiers and to ensure their forwarding and transport from such frontiers, irrespective of whether such goods are coming from or going to the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers or are in transit from or to those territories, under the same material conditions in such matters as rapidity of carriage and care en routc as are enjoyed by other goods of the same kind carried on Hungarian territory under similar conditions of transport.
In particular, the transport of perishable goods shall be promptly and regularly carried out, and the customs formalities shall be effected in such a way as to allow the goods to be carried straight through by trains which make connection.
The seaports of the Allied and Associated Powers are entitled to all favours and to all reduced tariffs granted on Hungarian railways or navigable waterways for the benefit of any port of another Power.
Hungary may not refuse to participate in the tariffs or combinations of tariffs intended to secure for ports of any of the Allied and Associated Powers advantages similar to those granted by Hungary to the ports of any other Power.
FREEDOM OF NAVIGATION.
The nationals of any of the Allied and Associated Powers, as well as their vessels and propertyw shall enjoy in all Hungarian ports and on the inland navigation routes of Hungary the same treatment in all respects as Hungarian nationals, vessels and property.
In particular, the vessels of any one of the Allied or Associated Powers shall be entitled to transport goods of any description, and passengers, to or from any ports or places in Hungarian territory to which Hungarian vessels may have access, under conditions which shall not be more onerous than those applied in the case of national vessels; they shall be treated on a footing of equality with national vessels as regards port and harbour facilities and charges of every description, including facilities for stationing, loading and unloading, and duties and charges of tonnage, harbour, pilotage, lighthouse, quarantine, and all analogous duties and charges of whatsoever nature, levied in the name of or for the profit of the Governrnent, public functionaries, private individuals, corporations or establishments of any kind.
In the event of Hungary granting a preferential regime to any of the Allied or Associated Powers or to any other foreign Power, this regime shall be extended immediately and unconditionally to all the Allied and Associated Powers.
There shall be no impediment to the movement of persons or vessels other than those arising from prescriptions concerning customs, police, sanitation, emigration and immigration, and those relating to the import and export of prohibited goods. Such regulations must be reasonable and uniform and must not impede traffic unnecessarily.
CLAUSES RELATING TO THE DANUBE.
(1) General Clauses relative to River Systems declared International.
The following river is declared international: the Danube from Ulm; together with all navigable parts of this river system which naturally provide more than one State with access to the sea, with or without transhipment from one vessel to another, as well as lateral canals and channels constructed either to duplicate or to improve naturally navigable sections of the specified river system or to connect two naturally navigable sections of the same river.
Any part of the above-mentioned river system which is not included in the general definition may be declared international by an agreement between the riparian States.
On the waterways declared to be international in the preceding Article, the nationals, property and flags of all Powers shall be treated on a footing of perfect equality, no distinction being made to the detriment of the nationals, property or flag of any Power, between them and the nationals, property or flag of the riparian State itself or of the most favoured nation.
Hungarian vessels shall not be entitled to carry passengers or goods by regular services between the ports of any Allied or Associated Power without special authority from such Power.
Where such charges are not precluded by any existing convention, charges varying on different sections of a river may be levied on vessels using the navigable channels or their approaches, provided that they are intended solely to cover equitably the cost of maintaining in a navigable condition, or of improving, the river and its approaches, or to meet expenditure incurred in the interests of navigation. The schedule of such charges shall be calculated on the basis of such expenditure and shall be posted up in the ports. These charges shall be levied in such a manner as to render any detailed examination of cargoes unnecessary, except in cases of suspected fraud or contravention.
The transit of vessels, passengers and goods on these waterways shall be effected in accordance with the general conditions prescribed for transit in Section I above.
When the two banks of an international river are within the same State goods in transit may be placed under seal or in the custody of customs agents. When the river forms a frontier goods and passengers in transit shall be exempt from all customs formalities; the loading and unloading of goods, and the embarkation and disembarkation of passengers, shall only take place in the ports specified by the riparian State.
No dues of any kind other than those provided for in this Part shall be levied along the course or at the mouth of these waterways.
This provision shall not prevent the fixing by the riparian States of customs, local octroi or consumption duties, or the creation of reasonable and uniform charges levied in the ports, in accordance with public tariffs, for the use of cranes, elevators, quays, warehouses and other similar constructions.
In default of any special organisation for carrying out the works connected with the upkeep and improvement of the international portion of a navigable system, each riparian State shall be bound to take the necessary measures to remove any obstacle or danger to navigation and to ensure the maintenance of good conditions of navigation.
If a State neglects to comply with this obligation any riparian State, or any State represented on the International Commission, may appeal to the tribunal instituted for this purpose by the League of Nations.
The same procedure shall be followed in the case of a riparian State undertaking any works of a nature to impede navigation in the international section. The tribunal mentioned in the preceding Article shall be entitled to enforce the suspension or suppression of such works, making due allowance in its decisions for all rights in connection with irrigation, water-power, fisheries and other national interests, which, with the consent of all the riparian States or of all the States represented on the International Commission, shall be given priority over the requirements of navigation.
Appeal to the tribunal of the League of Nations does not require the suspension of the works.
The regime set out in Articles 276 and 278 to 282 above shall be superseded by one to be laid down in a General Convention drawn up by the Allied and Associated Powers, and approved by the League of Nations, relating to the waterways recognised in such Convention as having an international character. This Convention shall apply in particular to the whole or part of the abovementioned river system of the Danube, and such other parts of that river system as may be covered by a general definition
Hungary undertakes, in accordance with the provisions of Article 314, to adhere to the said General Convention.
Hungary shall cede to the Allied and Associated Powers concerned, within a maximum period of three months from the date on which notification shall be given her, a proportion of the tugs and vessels remaining registered in the ports of the river system referred to in Article 275 after the deduction of those surrendered by way of restitution or reparation. Hungary shall in the same way cede material of all kinds necessary to the Allied and Associated Powers concerned for the utilisation of that river system.
The number of the tugs and vessels and the amount of the material so ceded, and their distribution, shall be determined by an arbitrator or arbitrators nominated by the United States of America, due regard being had to the legitimate needs of the parties concerned, and particularly to the shipping traffic during the five years preceding the war.
All craft so ceded shall be provided with their fittings and gear, shall be in a good state of repair and in condition to carry goods, and shall be selected from among those most recently built. Wherever the cessions made under the present Article involve a change of ownership, the arbitrator or arbitrators shall determine the rights of the former owners as they stood on October 15, 1918, and the amount of the compensation to be paid to them, and shall also direct the manner in which such payment is to be effected in each case. If the arbitrator or arbitrators find that the whole or part of this sum will revert directly or indirectly to States from whom reparation is due, they shall decide the sum to be placed under this head to the credit of the said States.
As regards the Danube the arbitrator or arbitrators referred to in this Article will also decide all questions as to the permanent allocation and the conditions thereof of the vessels whose ownership or nationality is in dispute between States.
Pending final allocation the control of these vessels shall be vested in a Commission consisting of representatives of the United States of America, the British Empire, France and Italy, who will be empowered to make provisional arrangements for the working of these vessels in the general interest by any local organisation, or failing such arrangements by themselves, without prejudice to the final allocation.
As far as possible these provisional arrangements will be OD a commercial basis, the net receipts by the Commission for the hire of these vessels being disposed of as directed by the Reparation Commission.
(2) Special Clauses relating to The Danube.
The European Commission of the Danube reassumes the powers it possessed before the war. Nevertheless, as a provisional measure, only representatives of Great Britain, France, Italy and Roumania shall constitute this Commission.
From the point where the competence of the European Commission ceases, the Danube system referred to in Article 275 shall be placed under the administration of an International Commission composed as follows:
2 representatives of German riparian States;
1 representative of each other riparian State;
1 representative of each non-riparian State represented in the future on the European Commission of the Danube.
If certain of these representatives cannot be appointed at the time of the coming into force of the present Treaty, the decisions of the Commission shall nevertheless be valid.
The International Commission provided for in the preceding Article shall meet as soon as possible after the coming into force of the present Treaty, and shall undertake provisionally the administration of the river in conformity with the provisions of Articles 276 and 278 to 282, until such time as a definitive statute regarding the Danube is concluded by the Powers nominated by the Allied and Associated Powers.
The decisions of this International Commission shall be taken by a majority vote. The salaries of the Commissioners shall be fixed and paid by their respective countries.
As a provisional measure, any deficit in the administrative expenses of this International Commission shall be borne equally by the States represented on the Commission. In particular this Commission shall regulate the licencing of pilots, charges for pilotage and the administration of the pilot service.
Hungary agrees to accept the regime which shall be laid down for the Danube by a Conference of the Powers nominated by the Allied and Associated Powers, which shall meet within one year after the coming into force of the present Treaty, and at which Hungarian representatives may be present.
Until such time as a definite statute regarding the Danube is concluded, the International Commission provided for in Article 286 shall have provisionally under its control the equipment, buildings and installations used for carrying out and maintaining works on the section of the Danube between Turnu-Severin and Moldava. The final allocation of the equipment, buildings and installations shall be determined by the Conference provided for in the preceding paragraph. Hungary renounces all interest in and all control over the said equipment, buildings and installations.
The mandate given by Article 57 of the Treaty of Berlin of July 13, 1878, to Austria-Hungary, and transferred by her to Hungary, to carry out works at the Iron Gates, is abrogated. The Commission entrusted with the administration of this part of the river shall lay down provisions for the settlement of accounts subject to the financial provisions of the present Treaty. Charges which may be necessary shall in no case be levied by Hungary.
Should the Czecho-Slovak State, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or Roumania, with the authorisation of or under mandate from the International Commission, undertake maintenance, improvement, weir, or other works on a part of the river system -which forms a frontier, these States shall enjoy on the opposite bank, and also on the part of the bed which is outside their territory, all necessary facilities for the survey, execution and maintenance of such works.
Hlmgary shall be obliged to make to the European Commission of the Danube all restitutions, reparations and indemnities for damages inflicted on the Commission during the war.
In default of any provisions to the contrary, when as the result of the fixing of a new frontier the hydraulic system (canalisation, inundations, irrigation, drainage, or similar matters) in a State is dependent on works executed within the territory of another State, or when use is made on the territory of a State, in virtue of pre-war usage, of water or hydraulic power, the source of which is on the territory of another State, an agreement shall be made between the States concerned to safeguard the interests and rights acquired by each of them.
Unless otherwise provided, when use is made for municipal or domestic purposes in one State of electricity or water, the source of which as the result of the fixing of a new frontier is on the territory of another State, an agreement shall be made between the States concerned to safeguard the interests and rights acquired by each of them. Pending an agreement, central electric stations and waterworks shall be required to continue the supply up to an amount corresponding to the undertakings and contracts in force on November 3, 1918.
Failing an agreement in the case of either of the above paragraphs, and subject to the provisions of Article 293, the matter shall be regulated by an arbitrator appointed by the Council of the League of Nations.
In view of the application of Article 292 to the territories of the former Kingdom of Hungary forming the Basin of the Danube, excluding the Basin of the Olt, as well as for the exercise of the powers provided for below, there shall be set up, in the common interest of the States possessing sovereignty over the territories in question, a permanent technical Hydraulic System Commission, composed of one representative of each of the States territorially concerned and a Chairman appointed by the Council of the League of Nations.
This Commission shall bring about the conclusion, and supervise and, in urgent cases, ensure the carrying out, of the agreements provided for in Article 292; it shall maintain and improve, particularly as regards deforestation and afforestation, the uniform character of the hydraulic system, as well as of the services connected therewith, such as the hydrometric service and the service of information as to the rising of the waters. It shall also study questions relating to navigation, excepting those falling within the competence of the Commission for regulating the navigation of the Upper Danube, which it shall refer to the said Commission, and it shall give special consideration to fishery interests. The Commission shall in addition undertake all works or schemes and shall establish all services with which it may be charged by the unanimous consent of the interested States.
The Hydraulic System Commission shall meet within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty; it shall draw up a regulation as to its functions and procedure, which will be subject to approval by the States concerned.
Any disputes which may arise out of the matters dealt with in this Article shall be settled as provided by the League of Nations.
FREEDOM OF TRANSIT TO THE ADRIATIC FOR HUNGARY.
Free access to the Adriatic Sea is accorded to Hungary, who with this object will enjoy freedom of transit over the territories and in the ports severed from the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
Freedom of transit is the freedom defined in Article 268 until such time as a General Convention on the subject shall have been concluded between the Allied and Associated Powers, whereupon the dispositions of the new Convention shall be substituted therefor.
Special conventions between the States or Administrations concerned will lay down the conditions of the exercise of the right accorded above, and will settle in particular the method of using the ports and the free zones existing in them, and the railways ordinarily giving access thereto, the establishment of international (joint) ervices and tariffs, including through tickets and way bills, and the maintenance of the Convention of Berne of October 14, I890, and its supplementary provisions until its replacement by a new Convention.
Freedom of transit will extend to postal, telegraphic and telephonic services.
CLAUSES RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT.
Goods coming from the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers and going to Hungary, or in transit through Hungary from or to the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers, shall enjoy on the Hungarian railways as regards charges to be collected (rebates and drawbacks being taken into account), facilities, and all other matters, the most favourable treatment applied to goods of the same kind carried on any Hungarian lines, either in internal traffic, or for exports import or in transit, under similar conditions of transport, for example as regards length of route. The same rule shall be applied, on the request of one or more of the Allied and Associated Powers, to goods specially designated by such Power or Powers coming from Hungary and going to their territories.
International tariffs established in accordance with the rates referred to in the preceding paragraph and involving through way bills shall be established when one of the Allied and Associated Powers shall require it from Hungary.
However, without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 272 and 273, Hungary undertakes to maintain on her own lines the regime of tariffs existing before the war as regards traffic to Adriatic and Black Sea ports, from the point of view of competition with North German ports.
From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties shall renew, in so far as concerns them and under the reserves indicated in the second paragraph of the present Article, the Conventions and Arrangements signed at Berne on October 14, 1890, September 20, I893, July 16, I895, June 16, 1898, and September 19, I906, regarding the transportation of goods by rail.
If within five years from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty a new Convention for the transportation of passengers, luggage and goods by rail shall have been concluded to replace the Berne Convention of October 14, 1890, and the subsequent additions referred to above, this new Convention and the supplementary provisions for international transport by rail which may be based on it shall bind Hungary, even if she shall have refused to take part in the preparation of the Convention or to subscribe to it. Until a new Convention shall have been concluded, Hungary shall conform to the provisions of the Berne Convention and the subsequent additions referred to above and to the current supplementary provisions.
Hungary shall be bound to co-operate in the establishment of through ticket services (for passengers and their luggage) which shall be required by any of the Allied and Associated Powers to ensure their communication by rail with each other and with all other countries by transit across the territories of Hungary; in particular Hungary shall, for this purpose, accept trains and carriages coming from the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers and shall forward them with a speed at least equal to that of her best long-distance trains orl the same lines. The rates applicable to such through services shall not in any case be higher than the rates collected on Hungarian internal services for the same distance, under the same conditions of speed and comfort. The tariffs applicable under the same conditions of speed and comfort to the transportation of emigrants going to or coming from ports of the Allied and Associated Powers and using the Hungarian railways shall not be at a higher kilometric rate than the most favourable tariffs (drawbacks and rebates being taken into account) enjoyed on the said railways by emigrants going to or coming from any other ports.
Hungary shall not apply specially to such through services, or to the transportation of emigrants going to or coming from ports of the Allied and Associated Powers, any technical, fiscal or administrative measures, such as measures of customs examination, general police, sanitary police, and control, the result of which would be to impede or delay such services.
In case of transport partly by rail and partly by internal navigation, with or without through way bill, the preceding Articles shall apply to the part of the journey performed by rail.
Hungary undertakes that Hungarian wagons shall be fitted with apparatus allowing:
(I) Of their inclusion in goods trains on the linesof such of the Allied and Associated Powers as are parties to the Berne Convention of May 15, 1886, as modified on May 18, 1907, without hampering the action of the continuous brake which may be adopted in such countries within ten years of the coming into force of the present Treaty, and
(2) Of the inclusion of wagons of such countries in all goods trains on Hungarian lines. The rolling stock of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy on the Hungarian lines the same treatment as Hungarian rolling stock as regards movement, upkeep and repairs.
TRANSFERS OF RAILWAY LINES.
Subject to any special provisions concerning the transfer of ports, waterways and railways situated in the territories transferred under the present Treaty, and to the financial conditions relating to the concessionaires and the pensioning of the personnel, the transfer of railways will take place under the following conditions:
(I) The works and installations of all the railroads shall be handed over complete and in good condition.
(2) When a railway system possessing its own rolling stock is handed over in its entirety by Hungary to one of the Allied and Associated Powers, such stock shall be handed over complete, in accordance with the last inventory before November 3, 1918, and in a normal state of upkeep.
(3) As regards lines without any special rolling stock, the distribution of the stock existing on the system to which these lines belong shall be made by Commissions of experts designated by the Allied and Associated Powers, on which Hungary shall be represented. These Commissions shall have regard to the amount of the material registered on these lines in the last inventory before November 3, I918, to the length of track (sidings included), and the nature and amount of the traftic. These Commissions shall also specify the locomotives, carriages and wagons to be handed over in each case; they shall decide upon the conditions of their acceptance, and shall make the provisional arrangements necessary to ensure their repair in Hungarian workshops.
(4) Stocks of stores, fittings and plant shall be handed over under the same conditions as the rolling stock.
The provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 above shall be applied to the lines of former Russian Poland converted by the AustroHungarian authorities to the normal gauge, such lines being regarded as detached from the Austrian and Hungarian State systems.
PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN RAILWAY LINES.
When, as a result of the fixing of new frontiers, a railway connection between two parts of the same country crosses another country, or a branch line from one country has its terminus in another, the conditions of working, if not specifically provided for in the present Treaty, shall be laid down in a convention between the railway administrations concerned. If the administrations cannot come to an agreement as to the terms of such convention, the points of difference shall be decided by Commissions of experts composed as provided in the preceding Article.
In particular, the convention as to the working of the line between Csata and Losoncz shall provide for the direct passage in each direction through Hungarian territory of Czecho-Slovak trains with Czecho-Slovak traction and Czecho-Slovak train crews. Nevertheless, unless otherwise agreed, this right of passage shall lapse either on the completion of a direct connection wholly in Czecho-Slovak territory between Csata and Losoncz or at the expiration of fifteen years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, whichever may occur first.
Similarly, the convention as to the working of the portion in Hungarian territory of the line from Nagyszalonta through Bekescsaba to Arad and to Kisjeno shall provide for the direct passage in each direction through Hungarian territory of Roumanian trains with Roumanian traction and Roumanian train crews. Unless otherwise agreed this right of passage shall lapse either on the completion of a direct connection wholly in Roamanian territory between the Nagyszalonta-Bekescsaba and the Kisjeno-Bekescsaba lines or at the expiration of ten years from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
The establishment of all the new frontier stations between Hungary and the contiguous Allied and Associated States, as well as the working of the lines between those stations, shall be settled by agreements similarly conduded.
In order to assure to the town and district of Gola in Serb-Croat-Slovene territory the use of the station of Gola in Hungarian territory and of the railway serving the same, and in order to ensure the free use to Serb-Croat-Slovene traffic of direct railway connection between the Csaktornya-Nagy-Kanisza line and the Zagrab-Gyekenyes line during the time required for the completion of a direct railway in Serb-Croat-Slovene territory between the above lines, the conditions of working of the station of Gola and of the railway from Kotor to Barcz shall be laid down in a convention between the Hungarian and Serb-Croat-Slovene railway administrations concerned. If these administrations cannot come to an agreement as to the terms of such convention, the points of difference shall be decided by the competent Commission of experts referred to in Article 301 of the present Treaty.
With the object of ensuring regular utilization of the railroads of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy owned by private companies which, as a result of the stipulations of the present Treaty, will be situated in the territory of several States, the administrative and technical re-organisation of the said lines shall be regulated in each instance by an agreement between the owning company and the States territorially concerned.
Any differences on which agreement is not reached, including questions relating to the interpretation of contracts concerning the expropriation of the lines, shall be submitted to arbitrators designated by the Council of the League of Nations.
This arbitration may, as regards the South Austrian Railway Company, be required either by the Board of Management or by the Committee representing the bondholders.
Within a period of five years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the Czecho-Slovak State may require the improvement of the Bratislava (Pressburg)-Nagy-Kanisza line on Hungarian territory.
The expenses shall be divided in proportion to the advantages derived by the interested States. Failing agreement, such division shall be made by an arbitrator appointed by the League of Nations.
In view of the importance to the Czecho-Slovak State of free communication between that State and the Adriatic, Hungary recognises the right of the Czecho-Slovak State to run its own trains over the sections included within her territory of the following lines:
(1) From Bratislava (Pressburg) towards Fiume via Sopron, Szombathely and Mura-Kereszturr and a branch from Mura-Keresztur towards Pragerhof;
(2) From Bratislava (Pressburg) towards Fiume via Hegyeshalon, Csorna, Hegyfalu, Zalaber, Zalaszentivan, Mura-Keresztur, and the branch lines from Hegyfalu to Szombathely and from Mura-Keresztur to Pragerhof.
On the application of either party, the route to be followed by the Czecho-Slovak trains may be modified either permanently or temporarily by mutual agreement between the Czecho-Slovak Railway Administration and those of the railways over which the running powers are exercised.
The trains for which the running powers are used shall not engage in local traffic, except by agreement between the State traversed and the Czecho-Slovak State.
Such running powers will include, in particular, the right to establish running sheds with small shops for minor repairs to locomotives and rolling stock, and to appoint representatives where necessary to supervise the working of Czecho-Slovak trains.
The technical, administrative and financial conditions under which the rights of the Czecho-Slovak State shall be exercised shall be laid down in a Convention between the railway administration of the Czecho-Slovak State and the railway administrations of the Hungarian systems concerned. If the administrations cannot come to an agreement on the terms of this Convention, the points of difference shall be decided by an arbitrator nominated by Great Britain, and his decisions shall be binding on all parties.
In the event of disagreement as to the interpretation of the Convention or of difficulties arising unprovided for in the Convention, the same form of arbitration will be adopted until such time as the League of Nations may lay down some other procedure.
Hungary shall carry out the instructions given her, in regard to transport, by an authorised body acting on behalf of the Allied and Associated Powers:
(I) For the carriage of troops under the provisions of the present Treaty, and of material, ammunition and supplies for army use;
(2) As a temporary measure, for the transportation of supplies for certain regions, as well as for the restoration, as rapidly as possible, of the normal conditions of transport, and for the organisation of postal and telegraphic services.
TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES.
Notwithstanding any contrary stipulations in existing treaties, Hungary undertakes to grant freedom of transit for telegraphic correspondence and telephonic communications coming from or going to any one of the Allied and Associated Powers, whether neighbours or not, over such lines as may be most suitable for international transit and in accordance with the tariffs in force. This correspondence and these communications shall be subjected to no delay or restriction; they shall enjoy in Hungary national treatment in regard to every kind of facility and especially in regard to rapidity of transmission. No payment, facility or restriction shall depend directly or indirectly on the nationality of the transmitter or the addressee.
In view of the geographical situation of the Czecho-Slovak State, Hungary agrees to the following modifications in the International Telegraph and Telephone Conventions referred to in Article 2I8, Part X (Economic Clauses), of the present Treaty:
(I) On the demand of the Czecho-Slovak State, Hungary shall provide and maintain trunk telegraph lines across Hungarian territory.
(2) The annual rent to be paid by the Czecho-Slovak State for each of such lines will be calculated in accordance with the provisions of the above-mentioned Conventions, but unless otherwise agreed shall not be less than the sum which would be payable under those Conventions for the number of messages laid down in those Conventions as conferring the right to demand a new trunk line, taking as a basis the reduced tariff provided for in Article 23, paragraph 5, of the International Telegraph Convention as revised at Lisbon.
(3) So long as the Czecho-Slovak State shall pay the above minimum annual rent of a trunk line:
(a) The line shall be reserved exclusively for transit traffic to and from the Czecho-Slovak State;
(b) The faculty given to Hungary by Article 8 of the International Telegraph Convention of July 22, 1875, to suspend international telegraph services shall not apply to that line.
(4) Similar provisions will apply to the provision and maintenance of trunk telephone circuits, but the rent payable by the Czecho-Slovak State for a trunk telephone circuit shall, unless otherwise agreed, be double the rent payable for a trunk telegraph line.
(5) The particular lines to be provided, together with any necessary administrative, technical and financial conditions not provided for in existing International Conventions or in this Article, shall be fixed by a further convention between the States concerned. In default of agreement on such convention they will be fixed by an arbitrator appointed by the Council of the League of Nations.
(6) The stipulations of the present Article may be varied at any time by agreement between Hungary and the Czecho-Slovak State. After the expiration of ten years from the coming into force of the present Treaty the conditions under which the Czecho-Slovak State shall enjoy the rights conferred by this Article may, in default of agreement by the parties, be modified at the request of either party by an arbitrator designated by the Council of the League of Nations.
(7) In case of any dispute between the parties aE to the interpretation either of this Article or of the convention referred to in paragraph 5, this dispute shall be submitted for decision to the Permanent Court of International Justice to be established by the League of Nations.
DISPUTES AND REVISION OF PERMANENT CLAUSES.
Disputes which may arise between interested Powers with regard to the interpretation and application of this Part of the present Treaty shall be settled as provided by the League of Nations.
At any time the League of Nations may recommend the revision of such of the above Articles as relate to a permanent administrative regime.
The stipulations in Articles 268 to 274, 277, 295, 297 to 299 and 309 shall be subject to revision by the Council of the League of Nations at any time after three years from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
Failing such revision, no Allied or Associated Power can claim after the expiration of the above period of three years the benefit of any of the stipulations in the Articles enumerated above on behalf of any portion of its territories in which reciprocity is not accorded in respect of such stipulations. The period of three years during which reciprocity cannot be demanded may be prolonged by the Council of the League of Nations.
The benefit of the stipulations mentioned above cannot be claimed by States to which territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy has been transferred, or which have arisen out of the dismemberment of that Monarchy, except upon the footing of giving in the territory passing under their sovereignty in virtue of the present Treaty reciprocal treatment to Hungary.
Without prejudice to the special obligations imposed on her by the present Treaty for the benefit of the Allied and Associated Powers, Hungary undertakes to adhere to any General Conventions regarding the international regime of transit, waterways, ports or railways which may be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers, with the approval of the League of Nations, within five years of the coming into force of the present Treaty.
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