Difference between revisions of "Treaty of Lausanne"

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<font size=+1>Treaty of Peace with Turkey Signed at Lausanne, July 24, 1923  
 
<font size=+1>Treaty of Peace with Turkey Signed at Lausanne, July 24, 1923  
From: <i>The Treaties of Peace 1919-1923, Vol. II</i> (New York:Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1924.)</font>
+
From: <i>The Treaties of Peace 1919-1923, Vol. II</i> (New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1924.)</font>
 
<hr>
 
<hr>
Go to [http://www.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/maps/lausmap.gif Map of the Treaty Area.] (42k)  
+
Go to [http://www.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/maps/lausmap.gif Map of the Treaty Area.] (42k)<br>
 
Go to [http://www.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/maps/arab.gif Map of the Mandate Areas of Arabia] (42k)
 
Go to [http://www.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/maps/arab.gif Map of the Mandate Areas of Arabia] (42k)
  
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<hr>
 
<hr>
  
<center>TREATY OF PEACE WITH TURKEY SIGNED AT LAUSANNE  
+
<center>TREATY OF PEACE WITH TURKEY SIGNED AT LAUSANNE
  
JULY 24, 1923  
+
JULY 24, 1923
  
 
THE CONVENTION RESPECTING THE REGIME OF THE STRAITS AND OTHER INSTRUMENTS SIGNED AT LAUSANNE</center>
 
THE CONVENTION RESPECTING THE REGIME OF THE STRAITS AND OTHER INSTRUMENTS SIGNED AT LAUSANNE</center>
  
THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY, JAPAN,GREECE, ROUMANIA and the SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE,
 
  
of the one part,  
+
THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY, JAPAN, GREECE, ROUMANIA and the SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE,
 +
 
 +
of the one part,
  
 
and TURKEY,
 
and TURKEY,
 
  
of the other part; Being united in the desire to bring to a final close the state of war which has existed in the East since 1914,  
+
of the other part; Being united in the desire to bring to a final
 +
close the state of war which has existed in the East since 1914,
  
Being anxious to re-establish the relations of friendship and commerce which are essential to the mutual well-being of their respective peoples,  
+
Being anxious to re-establish the relations of friendship and commerce
 +
which are essential to the mutual well-being of their respective
 +
peoples,
  
And considering that these relations must be based on respect for the independence and sovereignty of States,  
+
And considering that these relations must be based on respect for the
 +
independence and sovereignty of States,
  
Have decided to conclude a Treaty for this purpose, and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:  
+
Have decided to conclude a Treaty for this purpose, and have appointed
 +
as their Plenipotentiaries:
  
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR OF INDIA:  
+
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND
The Right Honourable Sir Horace George Montagu Rumbold, Baronet, G.C.M.G., High Commissioner at Constantinople;
+
IRELAND AND OF THE BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR OF
+
INDIA:<br>
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC:
+
The Right Honourable Sir Horace George Montagu Rumbold, Baronet,
General Maurice Pelle, Ambassador of France, High Com missioner of the Republic in the East, Grand Officer of the National Order of the Legion of Honour;
+
G.C.M.G., High Commissioner at Constantinople;
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY:
 
The Honourable Marquis Camillo Garroni, Senator of the Kingdom, Ambassador of Italy, High Commissioner at Constantinople, Grand Cross of the Orders of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, and of the Crown of Italy; M. Giulio Cesare Montagna, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Athens, Commander of the Orders of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Grand Officer of the Crown of Italy;  
 
  
HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN:  
+
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC:<br>
Mr. Kentaro Otchiai, Jusammi, First Class of the Order of the Rising Sun, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Rome;
+
General Maurice Pelle, Ambassador of France, High Com missioner of the
+
Republic in the East, Grand Officer of the National Order of the
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES:
+
Legion of Honour;
M. Eleftherios K. Veniselos, formerly President of the Council of Ministers, Grand Cross of the Order of the Saviour; M. Demetrios Caclamanos, Minister Plenipotentiary at London, Commander of the Order of the Saviour;  
 
  
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA:  
+
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY:<br>
M. Constantine I. Diamandy, Minister Plenipotentiary; M. Constantine Contzesco, Minister Plenipotentiary;
+
The Honourable Marquis Camillo Garroni, Senator of the Kingdom,
+
Ambassador of Italy, High Commissioner at Constantinople, Grand Cross
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS AND THE SLOVENES:
+
of the Orders of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, and of the Crown of Italy;
Dr. Miloutine Yovanovitch, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne;  
 
  
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF TURKEY:
+
M. Giulio Cesare Montagna, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Ismet Pasha, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Deputy for Adrianople; Dr. Riza Nour Bey, Minister for Health and for Public
+
Plenipotentiary at Athens, Commander of the Orders of Saints Maurice
Assistance, Deputy for Sinope; Hassan Bey, formerly Minister, Deputy for Trebizond;
+
and Lazarus, Grand Officer of the Crown of Italy;
 
Who, having produced their full powers, found in good and due orm, have agreed as follows:
 
  
PART I.  
+
HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN:<br>
 +
Mr. Kentaro Otchiai, Jusammi, First Class of the Order of the Rising
 +
Sun, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Rome;
  
 +
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES:<br>
 +
M. Eleftherios K. Veniselos, formerly President of the Council of
 +
Ministers, Grand Cross of the Order of the Saviour;
  
 +
M. Demetrios Caclamanos, Minister Plenipotentiary at London, Commander
 +
of the Order of the Saviour;
  
 +
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA:<br>
 +
M. Constantine I. Diamandy, Minister Plenipotentiary;
  
 +
M. Constantine Contzesco, Minister Plenipotentiary;
  
 +
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS AND THE SLOVENES:<br>
 +
Dr. Miloutine Yovanovitch, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
 +
Plenipotentiary at Berne;
  
 +
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF TURKEY:
 +
Ismet Pasha, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Deputy for Adrianople;
  
 +
Dr. Riza Nour Bey, Minister for Health and for Public Assistance,
 +
Deputy for Sinope;
  
 +
Hassan Bey, formerly Minister, Deputy for Trebizond;
  
 +
Who, having produced their full powers, found in good and due orm,
 +
have agreed as follows:
  
 +
PART I.<br>
 +
POLITICAL CLAUSES.<br>
 +
ARTICLE I.<br>
  
 +
From the coming into force of the present Treaty, the state of peace
 +
will be definitely re-established between the British Empire, France,
 +
Italy, Japan, Greece, Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State of the
 +
one part, and Turkey of the other part, as well as between their
 +
respective nationals. Official relations will be resumed on both sides
 +
and, in the respective territories, diplomatic and consular
 +
representatives will receive, without prejudice to such agreements as
 +
may be concluded in the future, treatment in accordance with the
 +
general principles of international law.
  
 +
SECTION I.<br>
 +
I. TERRITORIAL CLAUSES.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 2.<br>
  
+
From the Black Sea to the Aegean the frontier of Turkey is laid
 +
down as follows: (I) With Bulgaria:
  
 +
From the mouth of the River Rezvaya, to the River Maritza, the point
 +
of junction of the three frontiers of Turkey, Bulgaria and Greece:
  
POLITICAL CLAUSES.
+
the southern frontier of Bulgaria as at present demarcated;
  
 +
(2) With Greece:
  
 +
Thence to the confluence of the Arda and the Marilza:
  
 +
the course of the Maritza;
  
 +
then upstream along the Arda, up to a point on that river to be
 +
determined on the spot in the immediate neighbourhood of the village
 +
of Tchorek-Keuy:
  
 +
the course of the Arda;
  
 +
thence in a south-easterly direction up to a point on the Maritza, 1
 +
kilom. below Bosna-Keuy:
  
 +
a roughly straight line leaving in Turkish territory the village of
 +
Bosna-Keuy. The village of Tchorek-Keuy shall be assigned to Greece or
 +
to Turkey according as the majority of the population shall be found
 +
to be Greek or Turkish by the Commission for which provision is made
 +
in Article 5, the population which has migrated into this village
 +
after the 11th October, 1922, not being taken into account;
  
 +
thence to the Aegean Sea:
  
 +
the course of the Maritza.
  
 +
ARTICLE 3.
  
 +
From the Mediterranean to the frontier of Persia, the frontier of
 +
Turkey is laid down as follows:
  
 +
(I ) With Syria:
  
 +
The frontier described in Article 8 of the Franco-Turkish Agreement of
 +
the 20th October, 1921
  
 +
(2) With Iraq:
  
 +
The frontier between Turkey and Iraq shall be laid down in friendly
 +
arrangement to be concluded between Turkey and Great Britain within
 +
nine months.
  
ARTICLE I.  
+
In the event of no agreement being reached between the two Governments
 +
within the time mentioned, the dispute shall be referred to the
 +
Council of the League of Nations.
  
 +
The Turkish and British Governments reciprocally undertake that,
 +
pending the decision to be reached on the subject of the frontier, no
 +
military or other movement shall take place which might modify in any
 +
way the present state of the territories of which the final fate will
 +
depend upon that decision.
  
 +
ARTICLE 4.
  
 +
The frontiers described by the present Treaty are traced on the
 +
one-in-a-million maps attached to the present Treaty. In case of
 +
divergence between the text and the map, the text will prevail. [See
 +
Introduction.]
  
 +
ARTICLE 5.
  
 +
A Boundary Commission will be appointed to trace on the ground the
 +
frontier defined in Article 2 (2). This Commission will be composed of
 +
representatives of Greece and of Turkey, each Power appointing one
 +
representative, and a president chosen by them from the nationals of a
 +
third Power.
  
 +
They shall endeavour in all cases to follow as nearly as possible the
 +
descriptions given in the present Treaty, taking into account as far
 +
as possible administrative boundaries and local economic interests.
  
 +
The decision of the Commission will be taken by a majority and shall
 +
be binding on the parties concerned.
  
 +
The expenses of the Commission shall be borne in equal shares by the
 +
parties concerned.
  
 +
ARTICLE 6.
  
 +
In so far as concerns frontiers defined by a waterway as distinct from
 +
its banks, the phrases "course" or "channel" used in the descriptions
 +
of the present Treaty signify, as regards non-navigable rivers, the
 +
median line of the waterway or of its principal branch, and, as
 +
regards navigable rivers, the median line of the principal channel of
 +
navigation. It will rest with the Boundary Commission to specify
 +
whether the frontier line shall follow any changes of the course or
 +
channel which may take place, or whether it shall be definitely fixed
 +
by the position of the course or channel at the time when the present
 +
Treaty comes into force.
  
 +
In the absence of provisions to the contrary, in the present Treaty,
 +
islands and islets Iying within three miles of the coast are included
 +
within the frontier of the coastal State.
  
From the coming into force of the present Treaty, the state
+
ARTICLE 7.
  
 +
The- various States concerned undertake to furnish to the Boundary
 +
Commission all documents necessary for its task, especially authentic
 +
copies of agreements fixing existing or old frontiers, all large scale
 +
maps in existence, geodetic data, surveys completed but unpublished,
 +
and information concerning the changes of frontier watercourses. The
 +
maps, geodetic data, and surveys, even if unpublished, which are in
 +
the possession of the Turkish authorities, must be delivered at
 +
Constantinople with the least possible delay from the coming into
 +
force of the present Treaty to the President of the Commission.
  
of peace will be definitely re-established between the British
+
The States concerned also undertake to instruct the local authorities
 +
to communicate to the Commission all documents, especially plans,
 +
cadastral and land books, and to furnish on demand all details
 +
regarding property, existing economic conditions and other necessary
 +
information.
  
 +
ARTICLE 8.
  
Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State of the one part, and Turkey of the other part,
+
The various States interested undertake to give every assistance to
 +
the Boundary Commission, whether directly or through local
 +
authorities, in everything that concerns transport, accommodation,
 +
labour, materials (sign posts, boundary pillars) necessary for the
 +
accomplishment of its mission.
  
 +
In particular, the Turkish Government undertakes to furnish, if
 +
required, the technical personnel necessary to assist the Boundary
 +
Commission in the accomplishment of its duties.
  
as well as between their respective nationals.  
+
ARTICLE 9.
  
 +
The various States interested undertake to safeguard the
 +
trigonometrical points, signals, posts or frontier marks erected by
 +
the Commission.
  
Official relations will be resumed on both sides and, in the
+
ARTICLE 10.
  
 +
The pillars will be placed so as to be intervisible. They will be
 +
numbered, and their position and their number will be noted on a
 +
cartographic document.
  
respective territories, diplomatic and consular representatives will
+
ARTICLE 11.
  
 +
The protocols defining the boundary and the maps and documents
 +
attached thereto will be made out in triplicate, of which two copies
 +
will be forwarded to the Governments of the limitrophe States, and the
 +
third to the Government of the French Republic, which will deliver
 +
authentic copies to the Powers who sign the present Treaty.
  
receive, without prejudice to such agreements as may be concluded in the future, treatment in accordance with the general
+
ARTICLE 12.
  
 +
The decision taken on the 13th February, 1914, by the Conference of
 +
London, in virtue of Articles 5 of the Treaty of London of the
 +
17th-30th May, 1913, and 15 of the Treaty of Athens of the 1st-14th
 +
November, 1913, which decision was communicated to the Greek
 +
Government on the 13th February, 1914, regarding the sovereignty of
 +
Greece over the islands of the Eastern Mediterranean, other than the
 +
islands of Imbros, Tenedos and Rabbit Islands, particularly the
 +
islands of Lemnos, Samothrace, Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Nikaria, is
 +
confirmed, subject to the provisions of the present Treaty respecting
 +
the islands placed under the sovereigntyof Italy which form the
 +
subject of Article 15.
  
principles of international law.  
+
Except where a provision to the contrary is contained in the present
 +
Treaty, the islands situated at less than three miles from the Asiatic
 +
coast remain under Turkish sovereignty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 13.
  
 +
With a view to ensuring the maintenance of peace, the Greek Government
 +
undertakes to observe the following restrictions in the islands of
 +
Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Nikaria:
  
 +
(I) No naval base and no fortification will be established in the said
 +
islands.
  
 +
(2) Greek military aircraft will be forbidden to fly over the
 +
territory of the Anatolian coast. Reciprocally, the Turkish Government
 +
will forbid their military aircraft to fly over the said islands.
  
 +
(3) The Greek military forces in the said islands will be limited to
 +
the normal contingent called up for military service, which can be
 +
trained on the spot, as well as to a force of gendarmerie and police
 +
in proportion to the force of gendarmerie and police existing in the
 +
whole of the Greek territory.
  
 +
ARTICLE 14.
  
 +
The islands of Imbros and Tenedos, remaining under Turkish
 +
sovereignty, shall enjoy a special administrative organisation
 +
composed of local elements and furnishing every guarantee for the
 +
native non-Moslem population in so far as concerns local
 +
administration and the protection of persons and property. The
 +
maintenance of order will be assured therein by a police force
 +
recruited from amongst the local population by the local
 +
administration above provided for and placed under its orders.
  
 +
The agreements which have been, or may be, concluded between Greece
 +
and Turkey relating to the exchange of the Greek and Turkish
 +
populations will not be applied to the inhabitants of the islands of
 +
Imbros and Tenedos.
  
 +
ARTICLE 15.
  
 +
Turkey renounces in favour of Italy all rights and title over the
 +
following islands: Stampalia (Astrapalia), Rhodes (Rhodos), Calki
 +
(Kharki), Scarpanto, Casos (Casso), Piscopis (Tilos), Misiros
 +
(Nisyros), Calimnos (Kalymnos), Leros, Patmos, Lipsos (Lipso), Simi
 +
(Symi), and Cos (Kos), which are now occupied by Italy, and the islets
 +
dependent thereon, and also over the island of Castellorizzo.
  
+
ARTICLE I6.
  
 +
Turkey hereby renounces all rights and title whatsoever over or
 +
respecting the territories situated outside the frontiers laid down in
 +
the present Treaty and the islands other than those over which her
 +
sovereignty is recognised by the said Treaty, the future of these
 +
territories and islands being settled or to be settled by the parties
 +
concerned.
  
SECTION I.  
+
The provisions of the present Article do not prejudice any special
 +
arrangements arising from neighbourly relations which have been or may
 +
be concluded between Turkey and any limitrophe countries.
  
 +
ARTICLE 17.
  
 +
The renunciation by Turkey of all rights and titles over Egypt and
 +
over the Soudan will take effect as from the 5th November, 1914.
  
 +
ARTICLE 18.
  
 +
Turkey is released from all undertakings and obligations in regard to
 +
the Ottoman loans guaranteed on the Egyptian tribute, that is to say,
 +
the loans of 1855, 1891 and 1894. The annual payments made by Egypt
 +
for the service of these loans now forming part of the service of the
 +
Egyptian Public Debt, Egypt is freed from all other obligations
 +
relating to the Ottoman Public Debt.
  
 +
ARTICLE 19.
  
 +
Any questions arising from the recognition of the State of Egypt shall
 +
be settled by agreements to be negotiated subsequently in a manner to
 +
be determined later between the Powers concerned. The provisions of
 +
the present Treaty relating to territories detached from Turkey under
 +
the said Treaty will not apply to Egypt.
  
 +
ARTICLE 20.
  
 +
Turkey hereby recognises the annexation of Cyprus proclaimed by the
 +
British Government on the sth November, 1914.
  
I. TERRITORIAL CLAUSES.  
+
ARTICLE 2I .
  
 +
Turkish nationals ordinarily resident in Cyprus on the 5th November,
 +
1914, will acquire British nationality subject to the conditions laid
 +
down in the local law, and will thereupon lose their Turkish
 +
nationality. They will, however, have the right to opt for Turkish
 +
nationality within two years from the coming into force of the present
 +
Treaty, provided that they leave Cyprus within twelve months after
 +
having so opted.
  
 +
Turkish nationals ordinarily resident in Cyprus on the coming into
 +
force of the present Treaty who, at that date, have acquired or are in
 +
process of acquiring British nationality in consequence of a request
 +
made in accordance with the local law, will also thereupon lose their
 +
Turkish nationality.
  
 +
It is understood that the Government of Cyprus will be entitled to
 +
refuse British nationality to inhabitants of the island who, being
 +
Turkish nationals, had formerly acquired another nationality without
 +
the consent of the Turkish Government.
  
 +
ARTICLE 22.
  
 +
Without prejudice to the general stipulations of Article 27, Turkey
 +
hereby recognises the definite abolition of all rights and privileges
 +
whatsoever which she enjoyed in Libya under the Treaty of Lausanne of
 +
the 18th October, 1912, and the instruments connected therewith.
  
 +
2. SPECIAL PROVISIONS.  ARTICLE 23.
  
 +
The High Contracting Parties are agreed to recognise and declare the
 +
principle of freedom of transit and of navigation, by sea and by air,
 +
in time of peace as in time of war, in the strait of the Dardanelles,
 +
the Sea of Marmora and the Bosphorus, as prescribed in the separate
 +
Convention signed this day, regarding the regime of the Straits. This
 +
Convention will have the same force and effect in so far as the
 +
present High Contracting Parties are concerned as if it formed part of
 +
the present Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 24.
  
 +
The separate Convention signed this day respecting the regime for the
 +
frontier described in Article 2 of the present Treaty will have equal
 +
force and effect in so far as the present High Contracting Parties are
 +
concerned as if it formed part of the present Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 25.
  
 +
Turkey undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of Peace
 +
and additional Conventions concluded by the other Contracting Powers
 +
with the Powers who fought on the side of Turkey, and to recognise
 +
whatever dispositions have been or may be made concerning the
 +
territories of the former German Empire, of Austria, of Hungary and of
 +
Bulgaria, and to recognise the new States within their frontiers as
 +
there laid down.
  
ARTICLE 2.  
+
ARTICLE 26.
  
 +
Turkey hereby recognises and accepts the frontiers of Germany,
 +
Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Roumania, the
 +
Serb-Croat-Slovene State and the Czechoslovak State, as these
 +
frontiers have been or may be determined by the Treaties referred to
 +
in Article 25 or by any supplementary conventions.
  
 +
ARTICLE 27.
  
 +
No power or jurisdiction in political, legislative or administrative
 +
matters shall be exercised outside Turkish territory by the Turkish
 +
Government or authorities, for any reason whatsoever, over the
 +
nationals of a territory placed under the sovereignty or protectorate
 +
of the other Powers signatory of the present Treaty, or over the
 +
nationals of a territory detached from Turkey.
  
 +
It is understood that the spiritual attributions of the Moslem
 +
religious authorities are in no way infringed.
  
 +
ARTICLE 28.
  
 +
Each of the High Contracting Parties hereby accepts, in so far as it
 +
is concerned, the complete abolition of the Capitulations in Turkey in
 +
every respect.
  
 +
ARTICLE 29.
  
+
Moroccans, who are French nationals ("ressortissants") and Tunisians
 +
shall enjoy in Turkey the same treatment in all respects as other
 +
French nationals ("ressortissants").
  
 +
Natives ("ressortissants") of Libya shall enjoy in Turkey the same
 +
treatment in all respects as other Italian nationals
 +
("ressortissants") .
  
From the Black Sea to the &AElig;:gean the frontier of Turkey is laid
+
The stipulations of the present Article in no way prejudge the
 +
nationality of persons of Tunisian, Libyan and Moroccan origin
 +
established in Turkey.
  
 +
Reciprocally, in the territories the inhabitants of which benefit by
 +
the stipulations of the first and second paragraphs of this Article,
 +
Turkish nationals shall benefit by the same treatment as in France and
 +
in Italy respectively.
  
down as follows:
+
The treatment to which merchandise originating in or destined for the
 +
territories, the inhabitants of which benefit from the stipulations of
 +
the first paragraph of this Article, shall be subject in Turkey, and,
 +
reciprocally, the treatment to which merchandise originating in or
 +
destined for Turkey shall be subject in the said territories shall be
 +
settled by agreement between the French and Turkish Governments.
  
 +
SECTION II .<br>
 +
NATIONALITY.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 30.<br>
  
(I) With Bulgaria:
+
Turkish subjects habitually resident in territory which in accordance
 +
with the provisions of the present Treaty is detached from Turkey will
 +
become ipsofacto, in the conditions laid down by the local law,
 +
nationals of the State to which such territory is transferred.
  
 +
ARTICLE 31.
  
 +
Persons over eighteen years of age, losing their Turkish nationality
 +
and obtaining ipso facto a new nationality under Article 30, shall be
 +
entitled within a period of two years from the coming into force of
 +
the present Treaty to opt for Turkish nationality.
  
 +
ARTICLE 32.
  
 +
Persons over eighteen years of age, habitually resident in territory
 +
detached from Turkey in accordance with the present Treaty, and
 +
differing in race from the majority of the population of such
 +
territory shall, within two years from the coming into force of the
 +
present Treaty, be entitled to opt for the nationality of one of the
 +
States in which the majority of the population is of the same race as
 +
the person exercising the right to opt, subject to the consent of that
 +
State.
  
 +
ARTICLE 33.
  
 +
Persons who have exercised the right to opt in accordance with the
 +
provisions of Articles 31 and 32 must, within the succeeding twelve
 +
months, transfer their place of residence to the State for which they
 +
have opted.
  
 +
They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the
 +
territory of the other State where they had their place of residence
 +
before exercising their right to opt.
  
From the mouth of the River Rezvaya, to the River Maritza,
+
They may carry with them their movable property of every
 +
description. No export or import duties may be imposed upon them in
 +
connection with the removal of such property.
  
 +
ARTICLE 34.
  
the point of junction of the three frontiers of Turkey, Bulgaria and  
+
Subject to any agreements which it may be necessary to conclude
 +
between the Governments exercising authority in the countries detached
 +
from Turkey and the Governments of the countries where the persons
 +
concerned are resident, Turkish nationals of over eighteen years of
 +
age who are natives of a territory detached from Turkey under the
 +
present Treaty, and who on its coming into force are habitually
 +
resident abroad, may opt for the nationality of the territory of which
 +
they are natives, if they belong by race to the majority of the
 +
population of that territory, and subject to theconsent of the
 +
Government exercising authority therein. This right of option must be
 +
exercised within two years from the coming into force of the present
 +
Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 35.
  
Greece:
+
The Contracting Powers undertake to put no hindrance in the way of the
 +
exercise of the right which the persons concerned have under the
 +
present Treaty, or under the Treaties of Peace concluded with Germany,
 +
Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary, or under any Treaty concluded by the
 +
said Powers, other than Turkey, or any of them, with Russia, or
 +
between themselves, to choose any other nationality which may be open
 +
to them.
  
 +
ARTICLE 36.
  
 +
For the purposes of the provisions of this Section, the status of a
 +
married woman will be governed by that of her husband, and the status
 +
of children under eighteen years of age by that of their parents.
  
 +
SECTION III.<br>
 +
PROTECTION OF MINORITIES.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 37.<br>
  
 +
Turkey undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles 38 to 44
 +
shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no law, no
 +
regulation, nor official action shall conflict or interfere with these
 +
stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation, nor official action
 +
prevail over them.
  
 +
ARTICLE 38.
  
 +
The Turkish Government undertakes to assure full and complete
 +
protection of life and liberty to ali inhabitants of Turkey without
 +
distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion.
  
 +
All inhabitants of Turkey shall be entitled to free exercise, whether
 +
in public or private, of any creed, religion or belief, the observance
 +
of which shall not be incompatible with public order and good morals.
  
the southern frontier of Bulgaria as at present demarcated;
+
Non-Moslem minorities will enjoy full freedom of movement and of
 +
emigration, subject to the measures applied, on the whole or on part
 +
of the territory, to all Turkish nationals, and which may be taken by
 +
the Turkish Government for national defence, or for the maintenance of
 +
public order.
  
 +
ARTICLE 39.
  
 +
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities will enjoy the
 +
same civil and political rights as Moslems.
  
 +
All the inhabitants of Turkey, without distinction of religion, shall
 +
be equal before the law.
  
 +
Differences of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any
 +
Turkish national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or
 +
political rights, as, for instance, admission to public employments,
 +
functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries.
  
 +
No restrictions shall be imposed on the free use by any Turkish
 +
national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce,
 +
religion, in the press, or in publications of any kind or at public
 +
meetings.
  
 +
Notwithstanding the existence of the official language, adequate
 +
facilities shall be given to Turkish nationals of non-Turkish speech
 +
for the oral use of their own language before the Courts.
  
 +
ARTICLE 40.
  
(2) With Greece:
+
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities shall enjoy the
 +
same treatment and security in law and in fact as other Turkish
 +
nationals. In particular, they shall have an equal right to establish,
 +
manage and control at their own expense, any charitable, religious and
 +
social institutions, any schools and other establishments for
 +
instruction and education, with the right to use their own language
 +
and to exercise their own religion freely therein.
  
 +
ARTICLE 41.
  
 +
As regards public instruction, the Turkish Government will grant in
 +
those towns and districts, where a considerable proportion of
 +
non-Moslem nationals are resident, adequate facilities for ensuring
 +
that in the primary schools the instruction shall be given to the
 +
children of such Turkish nationals through the medium of their own
 +
language. This provision will not prevent the Turkish Government from
 +
making the teaching of the Turkish language obligatory in the said
 +
schools.
  
 +
In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of
 +
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities, these minorities
 +
shall be assured an equitable share in the enjoyment and application
 +
of the sums which may be provided out of public funds under the State,
 +
municipal or other budgets for educational, religious, or charitable
 +
purposes.
  
 +
The sums in question shall be paid to the qualified representatives of
 +
the establishments and institutions concerned.
  
 +
ARTICLE 42.
  
 +
The Turkish Government undertakes to take, as regards non-Moslem
 +
minorities, in so far as concerns their family law or personal status,
 +
measures permitting the settlement of these questions in accordance
 +
with the customs of those minorities.
  
 +
These measures will be elaborated by special Commissions composed of
 +
representatives of the Turkish Government and of representatives of
 +
each of the minorities concerned in equal number. In case of
 +
divergence, the Turkish Government and the Council of the League of
 +
Nations will appoint in agreement an umpire chosen from amongst
 +
European lawyers.
  
Thence to the confluence of the Arda and the Marilza:
+
The Turkish Government undertakes to grant full protection to the
 +
churches, synagogues, cemeteries, and other religious establishments
 +
of the above-mentioned minorities. All facilities and authorisation
 +
will be granted to the pious foundations, and to the religious and
 +
charitable institutions of the said minorities at present existing in
 +
Turkey, and the Turkish Government will not refuse, for the formation
 +
of new religious and charitable institu- tions, any of the necessary
 +
facilities which are guaranteed to other private institutions of that
 +
nature.
  
 +
ARTICLE 43.
  
 +
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities shall not be
 +
compelled to perform any act which constitutes a violation of their
 +
faith or religious observances, and shall not be placed under any
 +
disability by reason of their refusal to attend Courts of Law or to
 +
perform any legal business on their weekly day of rest.
  
 +
This provision, however, shall not exempt such Turkish nationals from
 +
such obligations as shall be imposed upon all other Turkish nationals
 +
for the preservation of public order.
  
 +
ARTICLE 44.
  
 +
Turkey agrees that, in so far as the preceding Articles of this
 +
Section affect non-Moslem nationals of Turkey, these provisions
 +
constitute obligations of international concern and shall be placed
 +
under the guarantee of the League of Nations. They shall not be
 +
modified without the assent of the majority of the Council of the
 +
League of Nations. The British Empire, France, Italy and Japan hereby
 +
agree not to withhold their assent to any modification in these
 +
Articles which is in due form assented to by a majority of the Council
 +
of the League of Nations.
  
 +
Turkey agrees that any Member of the Council of the League of Nations
 +
shall have the right to bring to the attention of the Council any
 +
infraction or danger of infraction of any of these obligations, and
 +
that the Council may thereupon take such action and give such
 +
directions as it may deem proper and effective in the circumstances.
  
 +
Turkey further agrees that any difference of opinion as to questions
 +
of law or of fact arising out of these Articles between the Turkish
 +
Government and any one of the other Signatory Powers or any other
 +
Power, a member of the Council of the League of Nations, shall be held
 +
to be a dispute of an international character under Article 14 of the
 +
Covenant of the League of Nations. The Turkish Government hereby
 +
consents that any such dispute shall, if the other party thereto
 +
demands, be referred to the Permanent Court of International
 +
Justice. The decision of the Permanent Court shall be final and shall
 +
have the same force and effect as an award under Article 13 of the
 +
Covenant.
  
the course of the Maritza;
+
ARTICLE 45.
  
 +
The rights conferred by the provisions of the present Section on the
 +
non-Moslem minorities of Turkey will be similarly conferred by Greece
 +
on the Moslem minority in her territory.
  
 +
PART II.<br>
 +
FINANCIAL CLAUSES.<br>
 +
SECTION I.<br>
 +
OTTOMAN PUBLIC DEBT.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 46.<br>
  
 +
The Ottoman Public Debt, as defined in the Table annexed to the
 +
present Section, shall be distributed under the conditions laid down
 +
in the present Section between Turkey, the States in favour of which
 +
territory has been detached from the Ottoman Empire after the Balkan
 +
wars of 1912-13, the States to which the islands referred to in
 +
Articles 12 and 15 of the present Treaty and the territory referred to
 +
in the last paragraph of the present Article have been attributed, and
 +
the States newly created in territories in Asia which are detached
 +
from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty. All the above St
 +
ates shall also participate, under the conditions laid down in the
 +
present Section, in the annual charges for the service of the Ottoman
 +
Public Debt from the dates referred to in Article 53.
  
 +
From the dates laid down in Article 53, Turkey shall not be held in
 +
any way whatsoever responsible for the shares of the Debt for which
 +
other States are liable.
  
 +
For the purpose of the distribution of the Ottoman Public Debt, that
 +
portion of the territory of Thrace which was under Turkish sovereignty
 +
on the 1st August, 1914, and lies outside the boundaries of Turkey as
 +
laid down by Article 2 of the present Treaty, shall be deemed to be
 +
detached from the Ottoman Empire under the said Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 47.
  
 +
The Council of the Ottoman Public Debt shall, within three months from
 +
the coming into force of the present Treaty, determine, on the basis
 +
laid down by Articles 50 and 51, the amounts of the annuities for the
 +
loans referred to in Part A of the Table annexed to the present
 +
Section which are payable by each of the States concerned, and shall
 +
notify to them this amount.
  
then upstream along the Arda, up to a point on that river to be
+
These States shall be granted an opportunity to send to Constantinople
 +
delegates to check the calculations made for this purpose by the
 +
Council of the Ottoman Public Debt.
  
 +
The Council of the Debt shall exercise the functions referred to in
 +
Article 134 of the Treaty of Peace with Bulgaria of the 27th November,
 +
1919.
  
determined on the spot in the immediate neighbourhood of the  
+
Any disputes which may arise between the parties concerned as to the
 +
application of the principles laid down in the present Article shall
 +
be referred, not more than one month after the notification referred
 +
to in the first paragraph, to an arbitrator whom the Council of the
 +
League of Nations will be asked to appoint; this arbitrator shall give
 +
his decision within a period of not more than three months. The
 +
remuneration of the arbitrator shall be determined by the Council of
 +
the League of Nations, and shall, together with the other expenses of
 +
the arbitration, be borne by the parties concerned. The decisions of
 +
the arbitrator shall be final. The payment of the annuities shall not
 +
be suspended by the reference of any disputes to the above-mentioned
 +
arbitrator.
  
 +
ARTICLE 48.
  
village of Tchorek-Keuy:
+
The States, other than Turkey, among which the Ottoman Public Debt, as
 +
defined in Part A of the Table annexed to this Section is attributed,
 +
shall, within three months from the date on which they are notified,
 +
in accordance with Article 47, of their respective shares in the
 +
annual charges referred to in that Article, assign to the Council of
 +
the Debt adequate security for the payment of their share. If such
 +
security is not assigned within the above-mentioned period, or in the
 +
case of any disagreement as to the adequacy of the security assigned,
 +
any of the Governments signatory to the present Treaty shall be
 +
entitled to appeal to the Council of the League of Nations.
  
 +
The Council of the League of Nations shall be empowered to entrust the
 +
collection of the revenues assigned as security to international
 +
financial organisations existing in the countries (other than Turkey)
 +
among which the Debt is distributed. The decisions of the Council of
 +
the League of Nations shall be final.
  
 +
ARTICLE 49
  
 +
Within one month from the date of the final determination under
 +
Article 47 of the amount of the annuities for which each of the States
 +
concerned is liable, a Commission shall meet in Paris to determine the
 +
method of carrying out the distribution of the nominal capital of the
 +
Ottoman Public Debt as defined in Part A of the Table annexed to this
 +
Section. This distribution shall be made in accordance with the
 +
proportions adopted for the division of the annuities, and account
 +
shall be taken of the terms of the agreements governing the loans and
 +
of the provisions of this Section.
  
 +
The Commission referred to in the first paragraph shall consist of a
 +
representative of the Turkish Government, a representative of the
 +
Council of the Ottoman Public Debt, a representative of the debt other
 +
than the Unified Debt and the Lots Turcs; each of the Governments
 +
concerned shall also be entitled to appoint a representative. All
 +
questions in regard to which the Commission may be unable to reach
 +
agreement shall be referred to the arbitrator referred to in the
 +
fourth paragraph of Article 47.
  
 +
If Turkey shall decide to create new securities in respect of her
 +
share, the distribution of the capital of the Ottoman Public Debt
 +
shall be made in the first instance as it affects Turkey by a
 +
Committee consisting of the representative of the Turkish Government,
 +
the representative of the Council of the Ottoman Public Debt and the
 +
representative of the debt other than the Unified Debt and the Lots
 +
Turcs. The new securities shall be delivered to the Commission, which
 +
shall ensure their delivery to the bondholders upon such terms as will
 +
provide for the release of Turkey from liability and the rights of the
 +
bondholders towards the other States which are liable for a share of
 +
the Ottoman Public Debt. The securities issued in respect of the share
 +
of each State in the Ottoman Public Debt shall be exempt in the
 +
territory of the High Contracting Parties from all stamp duties or
 +
other taxes which would be involved by such issue.
  
 +
The payment of the annuities for which each of the States concerned is
 +
liable shall not be postponed as a consequence of the provisions of
 +
the present Article in regard to the distribution of the nominal
 +
capital.
  
 +
ARTICLE 50.
  
the course of the Arda;
+
The distribution of the annual charges referred to in Article 47 and
 +
of the nominal capital of the Ottoman Public Debt mentioned in Article
 +
49 shall be effected in the following manner:
  
 +
(1) The loans prior to the 17th October, 1912, and the annuities of
 +
such loans shall be distributed between the Ottoman Empire as it
 +
existed after the Balkan wars of 1912-13, the Balkan States in favour
 +
of which territory was detached from the Ottoman Empire after those
 +
wars, and the States to which the islands referred to in Articles 12
 +
and 15 of the present Treaty have been attributed; account shall be
 +
taken of the territorial changes which have taken place after the
 +
coming into force of the treaties which ended those wars or subsequent
 +
treaties.
  
 +
(2) The residue of the loans for which the Ottoman Empire remained
 +
liable after this first distribution and the residue of the annuities
 +
of such loans, together with the loans contracted by that Empire
 +
between the 17th October, 1912, and the 1st November, 1914, and the
 +
annuities of such loans shall be distributed between Turkey, the newly
 +
created States in Asia in favour of which a territory has been
 +
detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty, and the
 +
State to which the territory referred to in the last paragraph of
 +
Article 46 of the said Treaty has been attributed.
  
 +
The distribution of the capital shall in the case of each loan be
 +
based on the capital amount outstanding at the date of the coming into
 +
force of the present Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 51 .
  
 +
The amount of the share in the annual charges of the Ottoman Public
 +
Debt for which each State concerned is liable in conse- quence of the
 +
distribution provided for by Article 50 shall be determined as
 +
follows:
  
 +
(I) As regards the distribution provided for by Article 50 (1), in the
 +
first place the share of the islands referred to in Articles 12 and 15
 +
and of the territories detached from the Ottoman Empire after the
 +
Balkan wars, taken together, shall be fixed. The amount of this share
 +
shall bear the same proportion to the total sum of the annuities to be
 +
distributed in accordance with Article 50 (1) as the average total
 +
revenue of the above mentioned islands and territories, taken as a
 +
whole, bore to the average total revenue of the Ottoman Empire in the
 +
financial years 1910-1911 and 1911-1912, including the proceeds of the
 +
customs surtaxes established in 1907.
  
 +
The amount thus determined shall then be distributed among the States
 +
to which the territories referred to in the preceding paragraph have
 +
been attributed, and the share for which each of these States will
 +
thus be made liable shall bear the same proportion to the total amount
 +
so distributed as the average total revenue of the territory
 +
attributed to each State bore in the financial years 1910-11 and
 +
1911-12 to the average total revenue of the territories detached from
 +
the Ottoman Empire after the Balkan Wars and the islands referred to
 +
in Articles 12 and 15. In calculating the revenues referred to in this
 +
paragraph, customs revenues shall be excluded.
  
thence in a south-easterly direction up to a point on the  
+
(2) As regards the territories detached from the Ottoman Empire under
 +
the present Treaty (including the territory referred to in the last
 +
paragraph of Article 46), the amount of the share of each State
 +
concerned shall bear the same proportion to the total sum of the
 +
annuities to be distributed in accordance with Article 50 (2) as the
 +
average total revenue of the detached territory (including the
 +
proceeds of the Customs surtax established in 1907) for the financial
 +
years 1910-11 and 1911-12 bore to the average total revenue of the
 +
Ottoman Empire, excluding the territories and islands referred to in
 +
paragraph (I) of this Article.
  
 +
ARTICLE 52.
  
Maritza, 1 kilom. below Bosna-Keuy:  
+
The advances referred to in Part B of the Table annexed to the present
 +
Section shall be distributed between Turkey and the other States
 +
referred to in Article 46 under the following conditions:
  
 +
(I) As regards the advances referred to in the Table which existed on
 +
the 17th October, 1912, the capital amount, if any, outstanding at the
 +
date of the coming into force of the present Treaty, together with the
 +
interest from the dates mentioned in the first paragraph of Article 53
 +
and the repayments made since those dates, shall be distributed in
 +
accordance with the provisions of Article 50 (I) and Article 51 (1).
  
 +
(2) As regards the amounts for which the Ottoman Empire remains liable
 +
after the first distribution and the advances referred to in the Table
 +
which were contracted by the said Empire between the 17th October,
 +
1912, and the 1st November, 1914, the capital amount, if any,
 +
outstanding at the date of the coming into force of the present
 +
Treaty, together with the interest from the 1st March, 1920, and the
 +
repayments made since that date, shall be distributed in accordance
 +
with the provisions of Article 50 (2) and Article 51 (2).
  
 +
The Council of the Ottoman Public Debt shall, within three months from
 +
the coming into force of the present Treaty, determine the amount of
 +
the share in these advances for which each of the States concerned is
 +
liable, and notify them of such amount.
  
 +
The sums for which States other than Turkey are liable shall be paid
 +
by those States to the Council of the Debt and shall be paid by the
 +
Council to the creditors, or credited to the Turkish Government up to
 +
the amount paid by Turkey, by way of interest or repayment, for the
 +
account of those States.
  
 +
The payments referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be made by
 +
five equal annuities from the coming into force of the present
 +
Treaty. Such portion of these payments as is payable to the creditors
 +
of the Ottoman Empire shall bear interest at the rates laid down in
 +
the contracts governing the advances; the portion to be credited to
 +
the Turkish Government shall be paid without interest.
  
 +
ARTICLE 53.
  
 +
The annuities for the service of the loans of the Ottoman Public Debt
 +
(as defined in Part A of the Table annexed to this Section) due by the
 +
States in favour of which a territory has been detached from the
 +
Ottoman Empire after the Balkan wars, shall be payable as from the
 +
coming into force of the treaties by which the respective territories
 +
were transferred to those States. In the case of the islands referred
 +
to in Article 12, the annuity shall be payable as from the 1st/14th
 +
November, 1913, and, in the case of the islands referred to in Article
 +
15, as from the 17th October, 1912.
  
a roughly straight line leaving in Turkish territory the village
+
The annuities due by the States newly created in territories in Asia
of Bosna-Keuy. The village of Tchorek-Keuy shall be assigned to
+
detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty, and by the
Greece or to Turkey according as the majority of the population
+
State to which the territory referred to in the last paragraph of
shall be found to be Greek or Turkish by the Commission for
+
Article 46 has been attributed, shall be payable as from the 1st
which provision is made in Article 5, the population which has
+
March, 1920.
migrated into this village after the 11th October, 1922, not being
 
taken into account;
 
  
 +
ARTICLE 54.
  
 +
The Treasury Bills of 1911, 1912 and 1913 included in Part A of the
 +
Table annexed to this Section shall be repaid, with interest at the
 +
agreed rate, within ten years from the dates fixed by the contracts.
  
 +
ARTICLE 55.
  
 +
The States referred to in Article 46, including Turkey, shall pay to
 +
the Ottoman Debt Council the amount of the annuities required for the
 +
service of their share of the Ottoman Public Debt (as defined in Part
 +
A of the Table annexed to this Section) to the extent that such
 +
annuities have remained unpaid as from the dates laid down by Article
 +
53. This payment shall be made, without interest, by means of twenty
 +
equal annuities from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
  
 +
The amount of the annuities paid to the Council of the Debt by the
 +
States other than Turkey shall, to the extent that they represent
 +
payments made by Turkey for the account of those States, be credited
 +
to Turkey on account of the arrears with which she is debited.
  
 +
ARTICLE 56.
  
 +
The Council of the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt shall no
 +
longer include delegates of the German, Austrian and Hungarian
 +
bondholders.
  
 +
ARTICLE 57.
  
thence to the &AElig;gean Sea:
+
Limits of time fixed for the presentation of coupons of or claims for
 +
interest upon the loans and advances of the Ottoman Public Debt and
 +
the Turkish Loans of 1855, 1891 and 1894 secured on the Egyptian
 +
tribute, and the limits of time fixed for the presentation of
 +
securities of these loans drawn for repayment, shall, on the territory
 +
of the High Contracting Parties, be considered as having been
 +
suspended from the 29th October, 1914, until three months after the
 +
coming into force of the present Treaty.
  
 +
ANNEX I TO SECTION I.<br>
 +
Table of the Ottoman Pre-War Public Debt (November 1, 1914).<br>
 +
Part A.<br>
  
 +
...................... Date of ................Date of Re-.......<br>
 +
Loan...................Contract ...Interest%...demption.....Bank of Issue<br>
 +
.1.......................2............3........... 4..............5...<br>
 +
----
 +
Unified Debt........1-14.9.1903--.....4........8-21.6.1906..............<br>
  
 +
Lots turcs.............5.1.1870....................
  
 +
Osmanie............18-30.4.1890.......4......1931...Imperial Ottoman Bank<br>
 +
Tombac priority...26.4-8.5.1893.......4......1954...Imperial Ottoman Bank<br>
  
 +
40,000,000fr<br>
 +
(Oriental Railways)....I-13.3.1894....4......1957...Deutsche Bank<br>
 +
....................................................and its group,<br>
 +
....................................................Including International<br>
 +
....................................................Bank and two French<br>
 +
....................................................banks.<br>
  
 +
5%, 1896............29.2-12.3.1896....5......1946...Imperial Ottoman Bank<br>
  
 +
Customs, 1902.........17-29.5.1886-...4......1958...Imperial Ottoman Bank<br>
 +
..................................28.9-11.10.1902...............
  
the course of the Maritza.  
+
4%, 1903 (Fisheries)..3.10.1888-21.2-.4......1958...Deutsche Bank<br>
 +
.........................................6.3.1903.<br>
  
 +
Bagdad, Series 1......20.2-5.3.1903...4......2001...Deutsche Bank
  
 +
4%, 1904................4-17.9.1903...4......1960...Imperial Ottoman Bank
  
 +
4%, 1901-1905.......21.11-4.12.1901-..4......1961...Imperial Ottoman Bank<br>
 +
........................................6.11.1903-25.4-<br>
 +
.........................................8.5.1905<br>
  
 +
Tedjhizat-Askerie.......4-17.4.1905...4......1961...Deutsche Bank
  
 +
Bagdad, Series II.....20.5-2.6.1908...4......2006...Deutsche Bank
  
 +
Bagdad, Series III....20.5-2.6.1908...4......2010...Deutsche Bank
  
 +
4%, 1908.................6-19.9.1908..4......1965...Imperial Ottoman Bank
  
 +
4%, 1909.............30.9-13.10.1909..4......1950...Imperial Ottoman Bank
  
 +
Soma-Panderma........20.11-3.12.1910..4......1992...Imperial Ottoman Bank
  
 +
Hodeida-Sanaa.........24.2-9.3.1911...4......2006...Banque francaise<br>
  
+
Customs 1911.........27.10-9.11.1910..4......1952...Deutsche Bank<br>
 +
.....................,,.............................and its group<br>
  
 +
Plain of Koniah............5-18.1913.........1932.....<br>
 +
irrigation
  
 +
Docks, arsenals......19.11-2 12.1913..5 1/2..1943.....<br>
 +
and naval constructions
  
 +
5%, 1914................13-26.4.1914..5.....(1962)..Imperial Ottoman Bank
  
 +
Avance Regie................4.8.1913...................<br>
 +
des Tabacs<br>
  
 +
Treasury Bills,............13-7.1911..5......1916*..National Bank<br>
 +
5% 1911 (purchase of warships)......................of Turkey<br>
  
 +
Treasury Bills,Imperial 8.21.11.1912..6......1915*..Imperial<br>
 +
....................................................Ottoman Bank<br>
  
 +
Treasury Bills,........19.1-1.2.1913..5......1918*..Perier<br>
 +
1913 (induding the bills issued directly) ..........and Co.<br>
  
 +
----
 +
*See Article 54.
  
  
 +
Part B.
  
 +
...........................Date...........................Original Nominal<br>
 +
Advance.................of Contract...........Interest....Capital L T.<br>
  
+
---- <br>
 +
Bagdad Railway Company.....3/16 June, 1908.......7........300,000<br>
 +
Lighthouse Administration..5/18 August, 1904.....8.........55,000<br>
 +
Lighthouse Administration..5/18 July, 1907.......7........300,000<br>
 +
Constanza Cable Company....27/9 October, 1904....4.........17,335<br>
 +
Tunnel Company..............................................3,000<br>
 +
Orphan's Fund..............Various dates..................153,147<br>
 +
Deutsche Bank..............13/26 August, 1912...5.5........33,000<br>
 +
Lighthouse Administration..3/16 April, 1913......7........500,000<br>
 +
Anatolia Railway Company...23/5 March, 1914......6........200,000<br>
  
 +
SECTION II.<br>
 +
MISCELLANEOUS CLAUSES.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 58.<br>
  
ARTICLE 3.  
+
Turkey, on the one hand, and the other Contracting Powers (except
 +
Greece) on the other hand, reciprocally renounce all pecuniary claims
 +
for the loss and damage suffered respectively by Turkey and the said
 +
Powers and by their nationals (including juridical persons) between
 +
the 1st August, 1914, and the coming into force of the present Treaty,
 +
as the result of acts of war or measures of requisition,
 +
sequestration, disposal or confiscation.
  
 +
Nevertheless, the above provisions are without prejudice to the
 +
provisions of Part III (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.
  
 +
Turkey renounces in favour of the other Contracting Parties (except
 +
Greece) any right in the sums in gold transferred by Germany and
 +
Austria under Article 259 (I) of the Treaty of Peace of the 28th June,
 +
I9I9, with Germany, and under Article 210 (I) of the Treaty of Peace
 +
of the 10th September, 1919, with Austria.
  
 +
The Council of the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt is freed
 +
from all liability to make the payments which it was required to make
 +
by the Agreement of the 20th June, 1331 (3rd July, 1915) relating to
 +
the first issue of Turkish currency notes or by the words inscribed on
 +
the back of such notes.
  
 +
Turkey also agrees not to claim from the British Government or its
 +
nationals the repayment of the sums paid for the warships ordered in
 +
England by the Ottoman Government which were requisitioned by the
 +
British Government in 1914, and renounces all claims in the matter.
  
 +
ARTICLE 59.
  
 +
Greece recognises her obligation to make reparation for the damage
 +
caused in Anatolia by the acts of the Greek army or administration
 +
which were contrary to the laws of war.
  
 +
On the other hand, Turkey, in consideration of the financial situation
 +
of Greece resulting from the prolongation of the war and from its
 +
consequences, finally renounces all claims for reparation against the
 +
Greek Government.
  
 +
ARTICLE 60.
  
 +
The States in favour of which territory was or is detached from the
 +
Ottoman Empire after the Balkan wars or by the present Treaty shall
 +
acquire, without payment, all the property and possessions of the
 +
Ottoman Empire situated therein.
  
 +
It is understood that the property and possessions of which the
 +
transfer from the Civil List to the State was laid down by the Irades
 +
of the 26th August, 1324 (8th September, I908) and the 20th April,
 +
1325 (2nd May, I909), and also those which, on the 30th October, 1918,
 +
were administered by the Civil List for the benefit of a public
 +
service, are included among the property and possessions referred to
 +
in the preceding paragraph, the aforesaid States being subrogated to
 +
the Ottoman Empire in regard to the property and possessions in
 +
question. The Wakfs created on such property shall be maintained.
  
+
The dispute which has arisen between the Greek and Turkish Governments
 +
relating to property and possessions which have passed from the Civil
 +
List to the State and are situated in territories of the former
 +
Ottoman Empire transferred to Greece either after the Balkan wars, or
 +
subsequently, shall be referred to an arbitral tribunal at The Hague,
 +
in accordance with the special protocol No. 2 annexed to the Treaty of
 +
Athens of the 1st-4th November, 1913. The terms of reference shall be
 +
settled between the two Governments.
  
 +
The provisions of this Article will not modify the juridical nature of
 +
the property and possessions registered in the name of the Civil List
 +
or administered by it, which are not referred to in the second and
 +
third paragraphs above.
  
 +
ARTICLE 61.
  
 +
The recipients of Turkish civil and military pensions who acquire
 +
under the present Treaty the nationality of a State other than Turkey,
 +
shall have no claim against the Turkish Government in respect of their
 +
pensions.
  
 +
ARTICLE 62.
  
 +
Turkey recognises the transfer of any claims to payment or repayment
 +
which Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary may have against her, in
 +
accordance with Article 261 of the Treaty of Peace concluded at
 +
Versailles on the 28th June, 1919, with Germany, and the corresponding
 +
articles of the Treaties of Peace of the l0th September, 1919, with
 +
Austria; of the 27th November, 1919, with Bulgaria; and of the 4th
 +
June, 1920 with Hungary.
  
 +
The other Contracting Powers agree to release Turkey from the debts
 +
for which she is liable on this account.
  
 +
The claims which Turkey has against Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and
 +
Hungary, are also transferred to the aforesaid Contracting Powers.
  
 +
ARTICLE 63.
  
 +
The Turkish Government, in agreement with the other Contracting
 +
Powers, hereby releases the German Government from the obligation
 +
incurred by it during the war to accept Turkish Government currency
 +
notes at a specified rate of exchange in payment for goods to be
 +
exported to Turkey from Germany after the war.
  
 +
PART III.<br>
 +
ECONOMIC CLAUSES.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 64.<br>
  
 +
In this part, the expression "Allied Powers" means the Contracting
 +
Powers other than Turkey.
  
+
The term "Allied nationals" includes physical persons, companies and
 +
associations of the Contracting Powers other than Turkey, or of a
 +
State or territory under the protection of one of the said Powers.
  
 +
The provisions of this Part relating to "Allied nationals" shall
 +
benefit persons who without having the nationality of one of the
 +
Allied Powers, have, in consequence of the protection which they in
 +
fact enjoyed at the hands of these Powers, received from the Ottoman
 +
authorities the same treatment as Allied nationals and have, on this
 +
account, been prejudiced.
  
 +
SECTION I.<br>
 +
PROPERTY, RIGHTS AND INTERESTS.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 65.<br>
  
 +
Property, rights and interests which still exist and can be identified
 +
in territories remaining Turkish at the date of the coming into force
 +
of the present Treaty, and which belong to persons who on the 29th
 +
October, 1914, were Allied nationals, shall be immediately restored to
 +
the owners in their existing state.
  
 +
Reciprocally, property, rights and interests which still exist and can
 +
be identified in territories subject to the sovereignty or
 +
protectorate of the Allied Powers on the 29th October, 1914, or in
 +
territories detached from the Ottoman Empire after the Balkan wars and
 +
subject to-day to the sovereignty of any such Power, and which belong
 +
to Turkish nationals, shall be immediately restored to the owners in
 +
their existing state. The same provision shall apply to property,
 +
rights and interests which belong to Turkish nationals in territories
 +
detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty, and which
 +
may have been subjected to liquidation or any other exceptional
 +
measure whatever on the part of the authorities of the Allied Powers.
  
 +
All property, rights and interests situated in territory detached from
 +
the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty, which, after having been
 +
subjected by the Ottoman Government to an exceptional war measure, are
 +
now in the hands of the Contracting Power exercising authority over
 +
the said territory, and which can be identified, shall be restored to
 +
their legitimate owners, in their existing state. The same provision
 +
shall apply to immovable property which may have been liquidated by
 +
the Contracting Power exercising authority over the said
 +
territory. All other claims between individuals shall be submitted to
 +
the competent local courts.
  
 +
All disputes relating to the identity or the restitution of property
 +
to which a claim is made shall be submitted to the Mixed Arbitral
 +
Tribunal provided for in Section V of this Part.
  
 +
ARTICLE 66.
  
 +
In order to give effect to the provisions of the first and second
 +
paragraphs of Article 65 the High Contracting Parties will, by the
 +
most rapid procedure, restore the owners to the possession of their
 +
property, rights and interests free from any burdens or encumbrances
 +
with which such property, rights and interests may have been charged
 +
without the consent of the said owners. It will be the duty of the
 +
Government of the Power effecting the restitution to provide for the
 +
compensation of third parties who may have acquired the property
 +
directly or indirectly from the said Government and who may be injured
 +
by this restitution. Disputes which may arise in connection with such
 +
compensation shall be dealt with by the ordinary courts.
  
+
In all other cases it will be open to any third parties who may be
 +
injured to take action against whoever is responsible, in order to
 +
obtain compensation.
  
 +
In order to give effect to these provisions all acts of transfer or
 +
other exceptional war measures, which the High Contracting Parties may
 +
have carried out in respect of enemy property, rights and interests,
 +
shall be immediately cancelled and stayed when liquidation has not yet
 +
been completed. Owners who make claims shall be satisfied by the
 +
immediate restitution of their property, rights and interests as soon
 +
as these shall have been identified.
  
From the Mediterranean to the frontier of Persia, the frontier
+
When at the date of the signature of the present Treaty the property,
of Turkey is laid down as follows:
+
rights and interests, the restitution of which is provided for in
 +
Article 65. have been liquidated by the authorities of one of the High
 +
Contracting Parties, that Party shall be discharged from the
 +
obligation to restore the said property, rights and interests by
 +
payment of the proceeds of the liquidation to the owner. If, on
 +
application being made by the owner, the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal
 +
provided for by Section V finds that the liquidation was not effected
 +
in such conditions as to ensure the realisation of a fair price, it
 +
will have the power, in default of agreement between the parties, to
 +
order the addition to the proceeds of the liquidation of such amount
 +
as it shall consider equitable. The said property, rights and
 +
interests shall be restored if the payment is not made within two
 +
months from the agreement with the owner or from the decision of the
 +
Mixed Arbitral Tribunal mentioned above.
  
 +
ARTICLE 67.
  
 +
Greece, Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State on the one hand, and
 +
Turkey on the other hand undertake mutually to facilitate, both by
 +
appropriate administrative measures and by the delivery of all
 +
documents relating thereto, the search on their territory for, and the
 +
restitution of, movable property of every kind taken away, seized or
 +
sequestrated by their armies or administrations in the territory of
 +
Turkey, or in the territory of Greece, Roumania or the
 +
Serb-Croat-Slovene State respectively, which are actually within the
 +
territories in question.
  
 +
Such search and restitution will take place also as regards property
 +
of the nature referred to above seized or sequestrated by German,
 +
Austro-Hungarian or Bulgarian armies or administrations in the
 +
territory of Greece, Roumania or the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, which
 +
has been assigned to Turkey or to her nationals, as well as to
 +
property seized or sequestrated by the Greek, Roumanian or Serbian
 +
armies in Turkish territory, which has been assigned to Greece,
 +
Roumania or the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or to their nationals.
  
 +
Applications relating to such search and restitution must be made
 +
within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 68.
  
(I ) With Syria:
+
Debts arising out of contracts concluded, in districts in Turkey
 +
occupied by the Greek army, between the Greek authorities and
 +
administrations on the one hand and Turkish nationals on the other,
 +
shall be paid by the Greek Government in accordance with the
 +
provisions of the said contracts.
  
 +
ARTICLE 69.
  
 +
No charge, tax or surtax to which, by virtue of the privileges which
 +
they enjoyed on the 1st August, 1914, Allied nationals and their
 +
property were not subject, shall be collected from Allied subjects or
 +
their property in respect of the financial years earlier than the
 +
financial year 1922-23.
  
 +
If any sums have been collected after the 15th May, 1923, in respect
 +
of financial years earlier than the financial year 1922-l923, the
 +
amount shall be refunded to the persons concerned, as soon as the
 +
present Treaty comes into force.
  
 +
No claim for repayment shall be made as regards sums encashed before
 +
the 15th May, 1923.
  
 +
ARTICLE 70.
  
 +
Claims based on Articles 65, 66 and 69 must be lodged with the
 +
competent authorities within six months, and, in default of agreement,
 +
with the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal within twelve months, from the coming
 +
into force of the present Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 7I.
  
 +
The British Empire, France, [taly, Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene
 +
State or their nationals having begun claims or suits with regard to
 +
their property, rights and interests against the Ottoman Government
 +
before the 29th October, 1914, the provisions of this Section will not
 +
prejudice such claims or suits.
  
+
Claims or suits begun against the British, French, Italian, Roumanian
 +
or Serb-Croat-Slovene Governments by the Ottoman Government or its
 +
nationals will similarly not be prejudiced. These claims or suits will
 +
be continued against the Turkish Government and against the other
 +
Governments mentioned in this Article under the conditions existing
 +
before the 29th October, I9I4, due regard being had to the abolition
 +
of the Capitulations.
  
 +
ARTICLE 72.
  
The frontier described in Article 8 of the Franco-Turkish
+
In the territories which remain Turkish by virtue of the present
Agreement of the 20th October, 1921
+
Treaty, property, rights and interests belonging to Germany, Austria,
 +
Hungary and Bulgaria or to their nationals, which before the coming
 +
into force of the present Treaty have been seized or occupied by the
 +
Allied Governments, shall remain in the possession of tlxese
 +
Governments until the conclusion of arrangements between them and the
 +
German, Austrian, Hungarian and Bulgarian Governments or their
 +
nationals who are concerned. If the above-mentioned property, rights
 +
and interests have been liquidated, such liquidation is confirmed.
  
 +
In the territories detached from Turkey under the present Treaty, the
 +
Governments exercising authority there shall have power, within one
 +
year from the coming into force of the present Treaty, to liquidate
 +
the property, rights and interests belonging to Germany, Austria,
 +
Hungary and Bulgaria or to their nationals.
  
 +
The proceeds of liquidations, whether they have already been carried
 +
out or not, shall be paid to the Reparation Commission established by
 +
the Treaty of Peace concluded with the States concerned, if the
 +
property liquidated belongs to the German, Austrian, Hungarian or
 +
Bulgarian State. In the case of liquidation of private property, the
 +
proceeds of liquidation shall be paid to the owners direct.
  
 +
The provisions of this Article do not apply to Ottoman limited
 +
Companies.
  
 +
The Turkish Government shall be in no way responsible for the measures
 +
referred to in the present Article.
  
  
(2) With Iraq:
+
SECTION II .<br>
 +
CONTRACTS, PRESCRIPTIONS AND JUDGMENTS.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 73.<br>
  
 +
The following classes of contracts concluded, before the date
 +
mentioned in Article 82, between persons who thereafter became enemies
 +
as defined in that Article, remain in force subject to the provisions
 +
of the contracts and to the stipulations of the present Treaty:
  
 +
(a) Contracts for the sale of real property, even if all formalities
 +
may not have been concluded, provided that delivery did in fact take
 +
place before the date on which the parties became enemies as defined
 +
in Article 82.
  
 +
(b) Leases and agreements for leases of land and houses entered into
 +
between individuals.
  
 +
(c) Contracts between individuals regarding the exploitation of mines,
 +
forests or agricultural estates.
  
 +
(d) Contracts of mortgage, pledge or lien.
  
 +
(e) Contracts constituting companies, excepting "societes en 'nom
 +
collectif' " which do not constitute, under the law to which they are
 +
subject, an entity separate from that of the persons of which they are
 +
composed (partnerships).
  
 +
(f) Contracts, whatever may be their purpose, concluded between
 +
individuals or companies and the State, provinces, municipalities or
 +
other similar juridical persons charged with administrative functions.
  
 +
(g) Contracts relating to family status.
  
+
(h) Contracts relating to gifts or bounties of any kind whatever.
  
 +
This Article cannot be invoked in order to give to contracts a
 +
validity different from that which they had in themselves when they
 +
were concluded.
  
The frontier between Turkey and Iraq shall be laid down in
+
It does not apply to concessionary contracts.
friendly arrangement to be concluded between Turkey and Great
 
Britain within nine months.  
 
  
 +
ARTICLE 74.
  
 +
Insurance contracts are governed by the provisions of the Annex to
 +
this Section.
  
 +
ARTICLE 75.
  
 +
Contracts other than those specified in Articles 73 and 74 and other
 +
than concessionary contracts, which were entered into between persons
 +
who subsequently became enemies, shall be considered as having been
 +
annulled as from the date on which the parties became enemies.
  
 +
Nevertheless, either of the parties to the contract shall have power,
 +
within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
 +
to require the execution of the contract, on condition of paying,
 +
where the circumstances demand it, to the other party compensation
 +
calculated according to the difference between the conditions
 +
prevailing at the time when the contract was concluded and those
 +
prevailing at the time when its maintenance is required. In default of
 +
agreement between the parties, this compensation shall be fixed by the
 +
Mixed Arbitral Tribunal.
  
 +
ARTICLE 76.
  
 +
The validity of all compromises entered into before the coming into
 +
force of the present Treatybetween nationals of the Contracting
 +
Powers, parties to contracts specified in Articles 73 to 75,
 +
particularly those providing for the cancellation, the maintenance,
 +
the methods of execution, or the modification of such contracts,
 +
including agreements relating to the currency of payment or the rate
 +
of exchange, is confirmed.
  
 +
ARTICLE 77.
  
+
Contracts between Allied and Turkish nationals concluded after the
 +
30th October, I918, remain in force and will be governed by the
 +
ordinary law.
  
 +
Contracts duly concluded with the Constantinople Government between
 +
the 30th October, I9I8, and the I6th March, I920, also remain in force
 +
and will be governed by the ordinary law.
  
In the event of no agreement being reached between the two
+
All contracts and arrangements duly concluded after the 16th March,
Governments within the time mentioned, the dispute shall be
+
I920, with the Constantinople Government concerning territories which
referred to the Council of the League of Nations.  
+
remained under the effective control of the said Government, shall be
 +
submitted to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey for approval, if
 +
the parties concerned make application within three months from the
 +
coming into force of the present Treaty. Payments made under such
 +
contracts shall be duly credited to the party who has made them.
  
 +
If approval is not granted, the party concerned shall, if the
 +
circumstances demand it, be entitled to compensation corresponding to
 +
the direct loss which has been actually suffered; such compensation,
 +
in default of an amicable agreement, shall be fixed by the Mixed
 +
Arbitral Tribunal.
  
 +
The provisions of this Article are not applicable either to
 +
concessionary contracts or to transfers of concessions.
  
 +
ARTICLE 78.
  
 +
All disputes which already exist, or may arise within the period of
 +
six months mentioned below, relating to contracts, other than
 +
concessionary contracts, between parties who subsequently became
 +
enemies, shall be determined by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, with the
 +
exception of disputes which, in accordance with the laws of neutral
 +
Powers are within the competence of the national courts of those
 +
Powers. In the latter case, such disputes shall be determined by the
 +
said national courts, to the exclusion of the Mixed Arbitral
 +
Tribunal. Applications relating to disputes which, under this Article,
 +
are within the competence of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, must be
 +
presented to the said Tribunal within a period of six months from the
 +
date of its establishment.
  
 +
After the expiration of this period, disputes which have not been
 +
submitted to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be determined by the
 +
competent courts in accordance with the ordinary law.
  
 +
The provisions of this Article do not apply to cases in which all the
 +
parties to the contract resided in the same country during the war and
 +
there freely disposed of their persons and their property, nor to
 +
disputes in respect of which judgment was given by a competent court
 +
before the date on which the parties became enemies.
  
 +
ARTICLE 79.
  
 +
All periods whatever of prescription or limitation of right of action,
 +
whether they began to run before or after the outbreak of war, shall
 +
be treated, in the territory of the High Contracting Parties so far as
 +
regards relations between enemies, as having been suspended from the
 +
29th October, I9I4, until the expiration of three months after the
 +
coming into force of the present Treaty.
  
+
This provision applies, in particular, to periods of time allowed for
 +
the presentation of interest or dividend coupons, or for the
 +
presentation for payment of securities drawn for redemption or
 +
repayable on any other ground.
  
 +
As regards Roumania, the above-mentioned periods shall be considered
 +
as having been suspended as from the 27th August 19I6.
  
The Turkish and British Governments reciprocally undertake
+
ARTICLE 80.
that, pending the decision to be reached on the subject of the
 
frontier, no military or other movement shall take place which
 
might modify in any way the present state of the territories of
 
which the final fate will depend upon that decision.  
 
  
 +
As between enemies no negotiable instrument made before the war shall
 +
be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of failure within the
 +
required time to present the instrument for acceptance or payrnent, or
 +
to give notice of non-acceptance or non-payment to drawers or
 +
endorsers, or to protest the instrument, nor by reason of failure to
 +
complete any formality during the war.
  
 +
When the period within which a negotiable instrument should have been
 +
presented for acceptance or payment, or within which notice of
 +
non-acceptance or non-payment should have been given to the drawers or
 +
endorsers, or within which the instrument should have been protested,
 +
has expired during the war, and when the party who should have
 +
presented or protested the instrument or given notice of
 +
non-acceptance or non-payment, has failed to do so during the war, a
 +
period of three months from the coming into force of the present
 +
Treaty shall be allowed within which the presentation, notice of
 +
non-acceptance or non-payment, or protest may be made.
  
 +
ARTICLE 8I.
  
 +
Sales effected during the war in order to realise pledges or mortgages
 +
created before the war as security for debts which have become
 +
payable, shall be deemed valid, although it may not have been possible
 +
to perform all the formalities required for notifying the debtor,
 +
subject to the express right of the said debtor to summon the creditor
 +
before the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal to render accounts, failing which
 +
the creditor will be liable to be cast in damages.
  
 +
It shall be the duty of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal to settle the
 +
accounts between the parties, to investigate the conditions under
 +
which the property pledged or mortgaged was sold, and to order the
 +
creditor to make good any loss suffered by the debtor as a result of
 +
the sale if the creditor acted in bad faith or if he did not take all
 +
steps in his power to avoid having recourse to a sale or to cause the
 +
sale to be conducted in such conditions as to ensure the realisation
 +
of a fair price.
  
 +
The present provision is applicable only between enemies and does not
 +
extend to transactions referred to above which may have been carried
 +
out after the Ist May, 1923.
  
 +
ARTICLE 82.
  
 +
For the purposes of the present Section, the parties to a contract
 +
shall be regarded as enemies from the date on which trading between
 +
them became impossible in fact or was prohibited or became unlawful
 +
under laws, orders or regulations to which one of the parties was
 +
subject.
  
 +
By way of exception to Articles 73-75, 79 and 80, contracts shall be
 +
governed by the ordinary law if they were concluded within the
 +
territory of one of the High Contracting Parties between enemies
 +
(including companies) or their agents, if this territory was an enemy
 +
country for one of the contracting parties who remained there during
 +
the war and was there able to dispose freely of his person and
 +
property.
  
 +
ARTICLE 83.
  
 +
The provisions of this Section do not apply between Japan and Turkey;
 +
matters dealt with in this Section shall, in both of these countries,
 +
be determined in accordance with the local law.
  
+
ANNEX.<br>
 +
I. LIFE ASSURANCE.<br>
 +
Paragraph I.<br>
  
 +
Life assurance contracts entered into between an insurer and a person
 +
who subsequently became an enemy shall not be deemed to have been
 +
dissolved by the outbreak of war or by the fact of the person becoming
 +
an enemy.
  
 +
Every sum which, during the war, became due upon a contract deemed not
 +
to have been dissolved in accordance with the preceding paragraph,
 +
shall be recoverable after the war. This sum shall be increased by
 +
interest at 5 per cent. per annum from the date of its becoming due up
 +
to the day of payment.
  
 +
If the contract has lapsed during the war, owing to non-payment of
 +
premiums or has become void from breach of the conditions of the
 +
contract, the assured, or his representatives, or the persons
 +
entitled, shall have the right at any moment within twelve months from
 +
the coming into force of the present Treaty to claim from the insurer
 +
the surrender value of the policy at the date of its lapse or
 +
annulation, together with interest at 5 per cent. per annum.
  
 +
Turkish nationals whose life insurance contracts entered into before
 +
the 29th October, 1914, have been cancelled or reduced before the
 +
Treaty for non-payment of premiums in accordance with the provisions
 +
of the said contracts, shall have the right, within three months from
 +
the coming into force of the present Treaty, if they are still alive,
 +
to restore their policies for the whole of the amount assured. For
 +
this purpose they must, after having undergone a medical examination
 +
by the doctor of the company, the result of which the company
 +
considers satisfactory, pay the premiums in arrear with compound
 +
interest at 5 per cent.
  
 +
Paragraph 2.
  
 +
It is understood that life assurance contracts in money other than the
 +
Turkish pound, entered into before the 29th October, 19I4, between
 +
companies possessing the nationality of an Allied Power and Turkish
 +
nationals, in respect of which the premiums have been paid before and
 +
after the 18th November, 1915, or even only before that date, shall be
 +
regulated, first, by determining the rights of the assured in
 +
accordance with the general conditions of the policy for the period
 +
before the 18th November, 1915, in the currency stipulated in the
 +
contract at the current rate in its country of origin (for example,
 +
every amount stipulated in francs, in gold francs, or in "francs
 +
effectifs" will be paid in French francs), secondly, for the period
 +
after the 18th November, 19I5, in Turkish pounds paper-the Turkish
 +
pound being taken at the pre-war par value.
  
 +
If Turkish nationals whose contracts were entered into in currency
 +
other than Turkish currency show that they have continued to pay their
 +
premiums since the 18th November, 1915, in the currency stipulated in
 +
the contracts, the said contracts shall be settled in the same
 +
currency at the current rate in its country of origin, even for the
 +
periocl after the 18th November, 19I5.
  
 +
Turkish nationals whose contracts, entered into before the 29th
 +
October, 1914, in currency other than Turkish currency with companies
 +
possessing the nationality of an Allied Power are, owing to payment of
 +
premiums, still in force, shall have the right within three months
 +
after the coming into force of the present Treaty to restore their
 +
policies for the full amount, in the currency stipulated in their
 +
contract, at the current rate in its country of origin. For this
 +
purpose they must pay in this currency the premiums which have become
 +
due since the 18th November, 1915. On the other hand, the premiums
 +
actually paid by them in Turkish pounds paper since that date will be
 +
repaid to them in the same currency.
  
 +
Paragraph 3.
  
 +
As regards insurances in Turkish pounds, settlement shall be made in
 +
Turkish pounds paper.
  
 +
Paragraph 4.
  
ARTICLE 4.  
+
The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 do not apply to policy holders
 +
who, by an express agreement, have already settled with the insurance
 +
companies the fixation of the value of their policies and the method
 +
of payment of their premiums, nor to those whose policies shall have
 +
been finally settled at the date of the coming into force of the
 +
present Treaty.
  
 +
Paragraph 5.
  
 +
For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, insurance contracts
 +
shall be considered as contracts of life insurance when they depend on
 +
the probabilities of human life, combined with the rate of interest,
 +
for the calculation of the reciprocal engagement between the two
 +
parties.
  
 +
II. MARINE INSURANCE.
  
 +
Paragraph 6.
  
 +
Subject to the provisions therein contained, contracts of marine
 +
insurance will not be deemed to have been dissolved where the risk had
 +
attached before the parties became enemies, but the policy shall not
 +
be deemed to cover losses due to belligerent action by the Power of
 +
which the insurer was a national or by the allies of that Power.
  
 +
III. FIRE AND OTHER INSURANCES.
  
 +
Paragraph 7.
  
 +
Subject to the reserve contained in the preceding paragraph, fire
 +
insurance contracts and all other forms of insurance contracts are not
 +
deemed to be dissolved.
  
 +
SECTION III.<br>
 +
DEBTS.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 84.<br>
  
 +
The High Contracting Parties are in agreement in recognising that
 +
debts which were payable before the war or which became payable during
 +
the war under contracts entered into before the war, and which
 +
remained unpaid owing to the war, must be settled and paid, in
 +
accordance with the provisions of the contracts, in the currency
 +
agreed upon, at the rate current in its country of origin.
  
+
Without prejudice to the provisions of the Annex to Section II of this
 +
part, it is agreed that where payments to be made under a pre-war
 +
contract are represented by sums collected during the war in whole or
 +
in part in a currency other than that mentioned in the said contract,
 +
such payments can be made by handing over the sums actually collected,
 +
in the currency in which they were collected. This provision shall not
 +
affect settlements inconsistent with the foregoing provisions arrived
 +
at by voluntary agreement between the parties before the coming into
 +
force of the present Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 85.
  
 +
The Ottoman Public Debt is by general agreement left outside the scope
 +
of.this Section and of the other Sections of this Part (Economic
 +
Clauses).
  
 +
SECTION IV.<br>
 +
INDUSTRIAL, LITERARY AND ARTISTIC PROPERTY.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 86.<br>
  
 +
Subject to the stipulations of the present Treaty, rights of
 +
industrial, literary and artistic property as they existed on the 1st
 +
August, I9I4, in accordance with the law of each of the contracting
 +
countries, shall be re-established or restored as from the coming into
 +
force of the present Treaty in the territories of the High Contracting
 +
Parties in favour of the persons entitled to the benefit of them at
 +
the moment when the state of war commenced, or of their legal
 +
representatives. Equally, rights which, but for the war, could have
 +
been acquired during the war, by means of an application legally made
 +
for the protection of industrial property or of the publication of a
 +
literary or artistic work, shall be recognised and established in
 +
favour of those persons who would have been entitled thereto, from the
 +
coming into force of the present Treaty.
  
 +
Without prejudice to the rights which are required to be restored in
 +
accordance with the above provision, all acts (including the grant of
 +
licences) done by virtue of the special measures taken during the war
 +
by a legislative, executive or administrative authority of an Allied
 +
Power in regard to the rights of Turkish nationals in respect of
 +
industrial, literary or artistic property, shall remain in force and
 +
continue to have their full effect. This provision applies mutatis
 +
mutandis to corresponding measures taken by Turkish authorities in
 +
regard to the rights of the nationals of any Allied Power.
  
 +
ARTICLE 87.
  
 +
A minimum of one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty
 +
shall be granted, without surtax or penalty of any kind, to Turkish
 +
nationals in the territory of each of the other Contracting Powers,
 +
and to the nationals of these Powers in Turkey, within which they may
 +
accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, pay any fees, and generally
 +
satisfy any obligation prescribed by the laws and regulations of the
 +
respective States for preserving or obtaining or opposing the grant of
 +
rights to industriai property which had already been acquired on the
 +
1st August, I9I4, or which, but for the war, might have been acquired
 +
since that date by means of an application made before or during the
 +
war.
  
 +
Rights to industrial property which have lapsed by reason of any
 +
failure to accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, or pay any fees
 +
shall be revived, but subject, in the case of patents and designs, to
 +
the adoption of such measures as each Power may deem reasonably
 +
necessary for the protection of the rights of third parties who have
 +
exploited or made use of patents or designs since they had lapsed.
  
 +
The period from the Ist August, I9I4, until the coming into force of
 +
the present Treaty shall be excluded in calculating the time within
 +
which a patent has to be exploited or a trade-mark or design used, and
 +
it is further agreed that no patent, trade-mark or design in force on
 +
the Ist August, I9I4, shall be subject to revocation or cancellation
 +
by reason only of the failure to exploit such patent or use such
 +
trade-mark or design, for two years after the coming into force of the
 +
present Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 88.
  
 +
No action shall be brought and no claim made on the one hand by
 +
Turkish nationals or persons residing or carrying on business in
 +
Turkey, and on the other hand by nationals of the Allied Powers or
 +
persons residing or carrying on their business in the territory of
 +
these Powers, nor by third parties having derived title during the war
 +
from such persons, by reason of any occurrence which has taken place
 +
within the territory of the other party, between the date of the
 +
beginning of a state of war and that of the coming into force of the
 +
present Treaty, which might tve held to constitute an infringement of
 +
rights of industrial property or rights of literary or artistic
 +
property either existing at any time during the war, or revived under
 +
the provisions of Article 86.
  
+
Among the occurrences referred to above are included the use by the
 +
Governments of the High Contracting Parties, or by any person acting
 +
on their behalf, or with their consent, of rights of industrial,
 +
literary or artistic property, as well as the sale, the offering for
 +
sale or the use of products, apparatus, or any articles whatsoever to
 +
which these rights apply.
  
 +
ARTICLE 89.
  
 +
Licences for the use of industrial property, or for the reproduction
 +
of literary or artistic works, granted before the war by or to
 +
nationals of the Allied Powers or persons residing in their
 +
territories or carrying on business therein, on the one hand, to or by
 +
Turkish nationals on the other hand, shall be considered as cancelled
 +
as from the date of the beginning of a state of war between Turkey and
 +
the Allied Power concerned. But in any case, the former beneficiary of
 +
a licence of this kind shall have the right within a period of six
 +
months from the coming into force of the present Treaty to require
 +
from the proprietor of the rights the grant of a new licence, the
 +
conditions of which, in default of agreement between the parties,
 +
shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal referred to in Section V
 +
of this Part. The Tribunal shall have the power, where the
 +
circumstances demand it, to fix at the same time the amount which it
 +
considers fair payment for the use of the property during the war.
  
 +
ARTICLE 90
  
 +
The inhabitants of territories detached from Turkey under the present
 +
Treaty shall, notwithstanding this transfer and the change of
 +
nationality consequent thereon, continue in complete enjoyment in
 +
Turkey of all the rights in industrial, literary and artistic property
 +
to which they were entitled under Ottoman law at the time of transfer.
  
 +
Rights of industrial, literary and artistic property which are in
 +
existence in territories detached from Turkey under the present Treaty
 +
at the time of separation, or which are re-established or restored by
 +
the provisions of Article 86, shall be recognised by the State to
 +
which the said territory is transferred, and shall remain in existence
 +
in that territory for the same period of time as that which they would
 +
have enjoyed under Ottoman law.
  
 +
ARTICLE 91
  
 +
All grants of patents and registrations of trade-marks, as well as all
 +
registrations of transfers or assignments of patents or trade marks
 +
which have been duly made since the 30th October, 1918, by the
 +
Imperial Ottoman Government at Constantinople or elsewhere, shall be
 +
submitted to the Turkish Government and registered, if the parties
 +
concerned make an application within three months from the coming into
 +
force of the present Treaty. Such registration shall have effect as
 +
from the date of the original registration.
  
 +
SECTION V.<br>
 +
MIXED ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 92.<br>
  
+
Within three months from the date of the coming into force of the
 +
present Treaty, a Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be established between
 +
each of the Allied Powers, on the one hand, and Turkey, on the other
 +
hand.
  
 +
Each of these Tribunals shall be composed of three members, two being
 +
appointed respectively by each of the Governments concerned, who shall
 +
be entitled to designate several persons from whom, according to the
 +
case in question, they will choose one to sit as a member of the
 +
Tribunal. The president shall be chosen by agreement between the two
 +
Governments concerned.
  
The frontiers described by the present Treaty are traced on
+
In case of failure to reach agreement within two months from the
the one-in-a-million maps attached to the present Treaty. In case
+
coming into force of the present Treaty, the president shall be
of divergence between the text and the map, the text will prevail.
+
appointed, upon the request of one of the Governments concerned, from
[See Introduction.]
+
among nationals of Powers which remained neutral during the war, by
 +
the President of the Permanent Court of International Justice at The
 +
Hague.
  
 +
If within the said period of two months one of the Governments
 +
concerned does not appoint a member to represent it on the Tribunal,
 +
the Council of the League of Nations will have power to proceed to the
 +
appointment of such member upon the request of the other Government
 +
concerned.
  
 +
If a member of the Tribunal should die or resign or for any reason
 +
become unable to perform his duties, he shall be replaced by the
 +
method laid down for his appointment, the above period of two months
 +
running from the date of death, resignation or inability as duly
 +
verified.
  
 +
ARTICLE 93.
  
 +
The seat of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals shall be at
 +
Constantinople. If the number and character of the cases justify it,
 +
the Governments concerned shall be entitled to create in each Tribunal
 +
onc or more additional Sections, the seat of which shall be in
 +
whatever place may be convenient. Each of these Sections shall be
 +
composed of a vice-president and two members appointed as laid down in
 +
the second, third, fourth and fifth paragraphs of Article 92.
  
 +
Each Government shall appoint one or more agents to represent it
 +
before the Tribunal.
  
 +
If, after three years from the establishment of a Mixed Arbitral
 +
Tribunal, or of one of its Sections, such Tribunal or Section has not
 +
finished its work, and if the Power on whose territory such Tribunal
 +
or Section has its seat so requests, the seat shall be removed from
 +
such territory.
  
 +
ARTICLE 94.
  
 +
The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals established pursuant to Articles 92 and
 +
93 shall decide all questions within their competence under the
 +
present Treaty.
  
 +
Decisions shall be taken by a majority.
  
 +
The High Contracting Parties agree to regard the decisions of the
 +
Mixed Arbitral Tribunals as final and conclusive, and to render them
 +
binding upon their nationals, and to ensure their enforcement in their
 +
respective territories as soon as the decisions of the Tribunals are
 +
notified to them, without it being necessary to have them declared
 +
executory.
  
 +
The High Contracting Parties further undertake that their Tribunals
 +
and authorities shall directly assist the fixed Arbitral Tribunals in
 +
every way that is in their power, particularly as re- gards the
 +
transmission of notices and the collection of evidence.
  
+
ARTICLE 95.
  
 +
The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals shall be guided by justice, equity and
 +
good faith.
  
 +
Each Tribunal will determine the language to be used before it, and
 +
shall order such translations to be made as are necessary to ensure
 +
that the proceedings are completely understood; it will lay down rules
 +
and time limits for the procedure to be observed. These rules must be
 +
based on the following principles:
  
 +
(I) The procedure shall include the presentation of a memorial and a
 +
counter-memorial respectively, with the option of presenting a reply
 +
and a rejoinder. If either of the parties asks for leave to present an
 +
oral argument he will be permitted to do so; in such case the other
 +
party will have the same right.
  
 +
(2) The Tribunal shall have full power to order enquiries, the
 +
production of documents, and expert examinations, to make a view, to
 +
demand any information, to hear any witnesses and to ask the parties
 +
or their representatives for any verbal or written explanations.
  
 +
(3) Subject to any contrary provision in the present Treaty, no claim
 +
shall be admitted after the expiry of a period of six months from the
 +
establishment of the Tribunal, except upon express authority contained
 +
in a decision of the said Tribunal and justified as an exceptional
 +
measure by considerations relating to distance or force majeure.
  
 +
(4) It shall be the duty of the Tribunal to hold as many sittings each
 +
week as may be needed for the prompt despatch of its business, except
 +
during vacations, which shall not exceed a total of eight weeks a
 +
year.
  
 +
(5) Judgment must always be given within at most two months from the
 +
end of the hearing, after which the Tribunal will at once proceed to
 +
consider its judgment.
  
 +
(6) Oral arguments, if any, shall be heard in public, and in all cases
 +
judgment shall be delivered in public.
  
 +
(7) Each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be entitled to hold sittings
 +
elsewhere than in the place where its seat is established, if it
 +
considers it advantageous for the despatch of business.
  
 +
ARTICLE 96.
  
 +
The Governments concerned shall appoint by agreement a
 +
Secretary-General for each Tribunal, and shall each attach to him one
 +
or more Secretaries. The Secretary-General and the Secretaries shall
 +
be under the orders of the Tribunal, which with the consent of the
 +
Governments concerned shall be entitled to engage any persons whose
 +
assistance it may need.
  
ARTICLE 5.  
+
The Secretariat of each Tribunal shall have its offices at
 +
Constantinople. The Governments concerned shall have power to
 +
establish additional offices in such other places as may be
 +
convenient.
  
 +
Each Tribunal shall keep in its Secretariat the records, papers and
 +
documents relating to the cases submitted to it, and upon the
 +
completion of its duties it shall deposit them in the archives of the
 +
Government of the country where its seat is established. These
 +
archives shall always be accessible to the Governments concerned.
  
 +
ARTICLE 97.
  
 +
Each Government shall pay the emoluments of the member of the Mixed
 +
Arbitral Tribunal whom it appoints, as well as those of any agent or
 +
secretary appointed by it.
  
 +
The emoluments of the President and those of the Secretary-General
 +
shall be fixed by agreement between the Governments concerned, and
 +
these emoluments and the general expenses of the Tribunal shall be
 +
paid in equal shares by the two Governments.
  
 +
ARTICLE 98.
  
 +
The present section shall not apply to cases between Japan and Turkey,
 +
which, according to the terms of the present Treaty, would fall within
 +
the competence of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. Such cases shall be
 +
settled by agreement between the two Govern- ments.
  
 +
SECTION VI.<br>
 +
TREATIES.<br>
 +
ARTICLE 99.<br>
  
 +
From the coming into force of the present Treaty and subject to the
 +
provisions thereof, the multilateral treaties, conventions and
 +
agreements of an economic or technical character enumerated below
 +
shall enter again into force between Turkey and those of the other
 +
Contracting Powers party thereto:
  
 +
(I) Conventions of March 14, 1884, of December 1, 1886, and of March
 +
23, 1887, and Final Protocol of July 7, 1887, regarding the protection
 +
of submarine cables;
  
 +
(2) Convention of July 5, 1890, regarding the publication of customs
 +
tariffs and the organisation of an International Union for the
 +
publication of customs tariffs;
  
+
(3) Arrangement of December 9, 1907, regarding the creation of the
 +
International Office of Public Hygiene at Paris;
  
 +
(4) Convention of June 7, 1905, regarding the creation of an
 +
International Agricultural Institute at Rome;
  
 +
(5) Convention of July 16, 1863, for the redemption of the toll dues
 +
on the Scheldt;
  
 +
(6) Convention of October 29, 1888, regarding the establishment of a
 +
definite arrangement guaranteeing the free use of the Suez Canal,
 +
subject to the special stipulations provided for by Article 19 of the
 +
present Treaty;
  
 +
(7) Conventions and Agreements of the Universal Postal Union,
 +
including the Conventions and Agreements signed at Madrid on November
 +
30, 1920;
  
 +
(8) International Telegraphic Conventions signed at St. Petersburgh on
 +
July 10-22, 1875; Regulations and Tariffs drawn up by the
 +
International Telegraph Conference, Lisbon, June 11, 1908.
  
 +
ARTICLE 100.
  
 +
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the Conventions or Agreements
 +
enumerated below, or to ratify them:
  
 +
(I) Convention of October 11, 1909, regarding the inter- national
 +
circulation of motor cars;
  
 +
(2) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the sealing of railway trucks
 +
subject to customs inspection and Protocol of May 18, 1907;
  
 +
(3) Convention of September 23, 1910, respecting the unification of
 +
certain regulations regarding collisions and salvage at sea;
  
 +
(4) Convention of December 21, 1904, regarding exemption of hospital
 +
ships from dues and charges in ports;
  
+
(5) Conventions of May 18, 1904, of May 4, 1910, and of September 30,
 +
1921, regarding the suppression of the White Slave Traffic;
  
 +
(6) Conventions of May 4, 1910, regarding the suppression of obscene
 +
publications;
  
 +
(7) Sanitary Convention of January 17, 1912, Articles 54, 88 and 90
 +
being reserved;
  
 +
(8) Conventions of November 3, 1881, and April 15, 1889, regarding
 +
precautionary measures against phylloxera;
  
 +
(9) Opium Convention, signed at The Hague, January 23, 1912, and
 +
additional Protocol of 1914;
  
 +
(10) International Radio-Telegraphic Convention of July 5, 1912;
  
 +
(11) Convention regarding liquor traffic in Africa, signed at
 +
St. Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919;
  
 +
(12) Convention revising the General Act of Berlin of February 26,
 +
1885, and the General Act and Declaration of Brussels of July 2, I890,
 +
signed at St. Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919;
  
 +
(13) Convention of October 13, 1919, regulating aerial navigation,
 +
provided that Turkey obtains, under the Protocol of May 1, 1920, such
 +
derogations as her geographical situation may render necessary;
  
+
(14) Convention of September 26, 1906, signed at Berne, prohibiting
 +
the use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches.
  
 +
Turkey further undertakes to take part in the elaboration of new
 +
international conventions relating to telegraphy and radio-telegraphy.
  
A Boundary Commission will be appointed to trace on the
+
PART IV.<br>
ground the frontier defined in Article 2 (2). This Commission
+
COMMUNICATIONS AND SANITARY QUESTIONS.<br>
will be composed of representatives of Greece and of Turkey, each
+
SECTION 1.<br>
Power appointing one representative, and a president chosen by
+
COMMUNICATIONS.<br>
them from the nationals of a third Power.  
+
ARTICLE 101.<br>
  
 +
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the Convention and to the Statute
 +
respecting the Freedom of Transit adopted by the Conference of
 +
Barcelona on the 14th April, 192I, as well as to the Convention and
 +
the Statute respecting the regime for waterways of international
 +
interest adopted by the said Conference on the 19th April, 1921, and
 +
to the supplementary Protocol.
  
 +
Turkey accordingly undertakes to bring into force the provisions of
 +
these Conventions, Statutes and Protocol as from the entry into force
 +
of the present Treaty.
  
 +
ARTICLE 102.
  
 +
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the Declaration of Barcelona. dated the
 +
20th April, 1921, "recognising the rights of the flag of States not
 +
possessing a sea-board."
  
 +
ARTICLE 103.
  
They shall endeavour in all cases to follow as nearly as possible
+
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the recommendations of the Conference
 +
of Barcelona, dated the 20th April, 1921, respecting ports placed
 +
under an international regime. Turkey will subsequently make known
 +
those ports which will be placed under that regime.
  
 +
ARTICLE 104.
  
the descriptions given in the present Treaty, taking into account
+
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the recommendations of the Conference
 +
of Barcelona, dated the 20th April, 1921, respecting international
 +
railways. These recommendations will be brought into force by the
 +
Turkish Government on the coming into force of the present Treaty and
 +
subject to reciprocity.
  
 +
ARTICLE 105.
  
as far as possible administrative boundaries and local economic
+
On the coming into force of the present Treaty, Turkey agrees to
 +
subscribe to the Conventions and arrangements signed at Berne on
 +
October 14, 1890, September 20, 1893, July I6, 1895, June 16, 1898,
 +
and September 19, 1906, regarding the transportation of goods by rail.
  
 +
ARTICLE 106.
  
interests.  
+
When, as a result of the fixing of new frontiers, a railway connection
 +
between two parts of the same country crosses another country, or a
 +
branch line from one country has its terminus in another, the
 +
conditions of working, in so far as concerns the traffic between the
 +
two countries, shall, subject to any special arrangements, be laid
 +
down in an agreement to be concluded between the railway
 +
administrations concerned. If these administrations cannot come to an
 +
agreement as to the terms of such agreement, those conditions shall be
 +
decided by arbitration.
  
 +
The establishment of all new frontier stations between Turkey and the
 +
neighbouring States, as well as the working of the lines between those
 +
stations, shall be settled by agreements similarly concluded .
  
 +
ARTICLE 107
  
 +
Travellers and goods coming from or destined for Turkey or Greece, and
 +
making use in transit of the three sections of the Oriental Railways
 +
included between the Grseco-Bulgarian frontier and the Grceco-Turkish
 +
frontier near Kuleli-Burgas, shall not be subject, on account of such
 +
transit, to any duty or toll nor to any formality of examination in
 +
connection with passports or customs.
  
 +
A Commissioner, who shall be selected by the Council of the League of
 +
Nations, shall ensure that the stipulations of this Article are
 +
carried out.
  
 +
The Greek and Turkish Governments shall each have the right to appoint
 +
a representative to be attached to this Commissioner; this
 +
representative shall have the duty of drawing the attention of the
 +
Commissioner to any question relating to the execution of the
 +
above-mentioned stipulations, and shall enjoy all the necessary
 +
facilities to enable him to accomplish his task. These representatives
 +
shall reach an agreement with the Commissioner as to the number and
 +
nature of the subordinate staff which they will require.
  
 +
It shall be the duty of the said Commissioner to submit, for the
 +
decision of the Council of the League of Nations, any question
 +
relating to the execution of the said stipulations which he may not
 +
have been able to settle. The Greek and Turkish Governments undertake
 +
to carry out any decision given by the majority vote of the said
 +
Council.
  
 +
The salary of the said Commissioner, as well as the expenses of his
 +
work, shall be borne in equal parts by the Greek and Turkish
 +
Governments.
  
+
In the event of Turkey constructing later a railway line joining
 +
Adrianople to the line between Kuleli-Burgas and Constantinople, the
 +
stipulations of this Article shall lapse in so far as concerns transit
 +
between the points on the Graoco-Turkish frontier lying near
 +
Kuleli-Burgas and Bosna-Keuy respectively.
  
 +
Each of the two interested Powers shall have the right, after five
 +
years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, to apply to
 +
the Council of the League of Nations with a view to deciding whether
 +
it is necessary that the control mentioned in paragraphs 2 to 5 of the
 +
present Article should be maintained. Nevertheless, it remains
 +
understood that the stipulations of paragraph I shall remain in force
 +
for transit over the two sections of the Oriental Railways between the
 +
Graeco-Bulgarian frontier and Bosna-Keuy.
  
The decision of the Commission will be taken by a majority and
+
ARTICLE 108.
  
 +
Subject to any special provisions concerning the transfer of ports and
 +
railways, whether owned by the Turkish Government or private
 +
companies, situated in the territories detached from Turkey under the
 +
present Treaty, and similarly subject to any agreements which have
 +
been, or may be, concluded between the Contracting Powers relating to
 +
the concessionnaries and the pensioning of the personnel, the transfer
 +
of railways will take place under the following conditions:
  
shall be binding on the parties concerned.
+
(I) The works and installations of all the railroads shall be left
 
+
complete and in as good condition as possible;
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The expenses of the Commission shall be borne in equal shares
 
 
 
 
 
by the parties concerned.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 6.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In so far as concerns frontiers defined by a waterway as distinct
 
 
 
 
 
from its banks, the phrases "course" or "channel" used in the
 
 
 
 
 
descriptions of the present Treaty signify, as regards non-navigable rivers, the median line of the waterway or of its principal
 
 
 
 
 
branch, and, as regards navigable rivers, the median line of the
 
 
 
 
 
principal channel of navigation. It will rest with the Boundary
 
 
 
 
 
Commission to specify whether the frontier line shall follow any
 
 
 
 
 
changes of the course or channel which may take place, or whether
 
 
 
 
 
it shall be definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel
 
 
 
 
 
at the time when the present Treaty comes into force.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In the absence of provisions to the contrary, in the present
 
 
 
 
 
Treaty, islands and islets Iying within three miles of the coast are
 
 
 
 
 
included within the frontier of the coastal State.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 7.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The various States concerned undertake to furnish to the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Boundary Commission all documents necessary for its task, especially authentic copies of agreements fixing existing or old frontiers, all large scale maps in existence, geodetic data, surveys completed but unpublished, and information concerning the changes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
of frontier watercourses. The maps, geodetic data, and surveys,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
even if unpublished, which are in the possession of the Turkish
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
authorities, must be delivered at Constantinople with the least
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
possible delay from the coming into force of the present Treaty
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
to the President of the Commission.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The States concerned also undertake to instruct the local
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
authorities to communicate to the Commission all documents,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
especially plans, cadastral and land books, and to furnish on
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
demand all details regarding property, existing economic conditions and other necessary information.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 8.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The various States interested undertake to give every assistance to the Boundary Commission, whether directly or through
 
local authorities, in everything that concerns transport, accommodation, labour, materials (sign posts, boundary pillars) necessary for the accomplishment of its mission.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In particular, the Turkish Government undertakes to furnish,
 
if required, the technical personnel necessary to assist the Boundary Commission in the accomplishment of its duties.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 9.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The various States interested undertake to safeguard the
 
trigonometrical points, signals, posts or frontier marks erected by
 
the Commission.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 10.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The pillars will be placed so as to be intervisible. They will
 
be numbered, and their position and their number will be noted
 
on a cartographic document.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 11.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The protocols defining the boundary and the maps and documents attached thereto will be made out in triplicate, of which
 
two copies will be forwarded to the Governments of the limitrophe
 
States, and the third to the Government of the French Republic, which will deliver authentic copies to the Powers who sign the
 
present Treaty.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 12.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The decision taken on the 13th February, 1914, by the Conference of London, in virtue of Articles 5 of the Treaty of London
 
of the 17th-30th May, 1913, and 15 of the Treaty of Athens of the
 
1st-14th November, 1913, which decision was communicated to
 
the Greek Government on the 13th February, 1914, regarding the
 
sovereignty of Greece over the islands of the Eastern Mediterranean, other than the islands of Imbros, Tenedos and Rabbit
 
Islands, particularly the islands of Lemnos, Samothrace, Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Nikaria, is confirmed, subject to the
 
provisions of the present Treaty respecting the islands placed
 
under the sovereigntyof Italy which form the subject of Article 15.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Except where a provision to the contrary is contained in the
 
present Treaty, the islands situated at less than three miles
 
from the Asiatic coast remain under Turkish sovereignty.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 13.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
With a view to ensuring the maintenance of peace, the Greek Government undertakes to observe the following restrictions in the islands of Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Nikaria:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(I) No naval base and no fortification will be established in the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
said islands.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(2) Greek military aircraft will be forbidden to fly over the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
territory of the Anatolian coast. Reciprocally, the Turkish Government will forbid their military aircraft to fly
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
over the said islands.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(3) The Greek military forces in the said islands will be
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
limited to the normal contingent called up for military
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
service, which can be trained on the spot, as well as to
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
a force of gendarmerie and police in proportion to the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
force of gendarmerie and police existing in the whole
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
of the Greek territory.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 14.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The islands of Imbros and Tenedos, remaining under Turkish sovereignty, shall enjoy a special administrative organisation composed of local elements and furnishing every guarantee for the native non-Moslem population in so far as concerns local administration and the protection of persons and property. The maintenance of order will be assured therein by a police force recruited from amongst the local population by the local administration above provided for and placed under its orders.
 
 
 
 
The agreements which have been, or may be, concluded between Greece and Turkey relating to the exchange of the Greek and Turkish populations will not be applied to the inhabitants of the islands of Imbros and Tenedos.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 15.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey renounces in favour of Italy all rights and title over the following islands: Stampalia (Astrapalia), Rhodes (Rhodos), Calki (Kharki), Scarpanto, Casos (Casso), Piscopis (Tilos), Misiros (Nisyros), Calimnos (Kalymnos), Leros, Patmos, Lipsos (Lipso), Simi (Symi), and Cos (Kos), which are now occupied by Italy, and the islets dependent thereon, and also over the island of Castellorizzo.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE I6.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey hereby renounces all rights and title whatsoever over or
 
respecting the territories situated outside the frontiers laid down
 
in the present Treaty and the islands other than those over which
 
her sovereignty is recognised by the said Treaty, the future of
 
these territories and islands being settled or to be settled by the
 
parties concerned.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The provisions of the present Article do not prejudice any special arrangements arising from neighbourly relations which have
 
been or may be concluded between Turkey and any limitrophe
 
countries.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 17.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The renunciation by Turkey of all rights and titles over Egypt
 
and over the Soudan will take effect as from the 5th November,
 
1914.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 18.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey is released from all undertakings and obligations in
 
regard to the Ottoman loans guaranteed on the Egyptian tribute,
 
that is to say, the loans of 1855, 1891 and 1894. The annual
 
payments made by Egypt for the service of these loans now forming part of the service of the Egyptian Public Debt, Egypt is
 
freed from all other obligations relating to the Ottoman Public
 
Debt.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 19.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Any questions arising from the recognition of the State of Egypt
 
shall be settled by agreements to be negotiated subsequently in a
 
manner to be determined later between the Powers concerned.
 
The provisions of the present Treaty relating to territories detached from Turkey under the said Treaty will not apply to Egypt.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 20.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey hereby recognises the annexation of Cyprus proclaimed
 
by the British Government on the sth November, 1914.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 2I .
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkish nationals ordinarily resident in Cyprus on the 5th
 
November, 1914, will acquire British nationality subject to the
 
conditions laid down in the local law, and will thereupon lose
 
their Turkish nationality. They will, however, have the right to opt for Turkish nationality within two years from the coming into
 
force of the present Treaty, provided that they leave Cyprus
 
within twelve months after having so opted.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkish nationals ordinarily resident in Cyprus on the coming
 
into force of the present Treaty who, at that date, have acquired
 
or are in process of acquiring British nationality in consequence
 
of a request made in accordance with the local law, will also
 
thereupon lose their Turkish nationality.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
It is understood that the Government of Cyprus will be entitled
 
to refuse British nationality to inhabitants of the island who,
 
being Turkish nationals, had formerly acquired another nationality without the consent of the Turkish Government.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 22.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Without prejudice to the general stipulations of Article 27,
 
Turkey hereby recognises the definite abolition of all rights and
 
privileges whatsoever which she enjoyed in Libya under the
 
Treaty of Lausanne of the 18th October, 1912, and the instruments connected therewith.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. SPECIAL PROVISIONS.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 23.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The High Contracting Parties are agreed to recognise and
 
declare the principle of freedom of transit and of navigation, by
 
sea and by air, in time of peace as in time of war, in the strait of
 
the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmora and the Bosphorus, as prescribed in the separate Convention signed this day, regarding the
 
regime of the Straits. This Convention will have the same force
 
and effect in so far as the present High Contracting Parties are
 
concerned as if it formed part of the present Treaty.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 24.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The separate Convention signed this day respecting the regime
 
for the frontier described in Article 2 of the present Treaty will
 
have equal force and effect in so far as the present High Contracting Parties are concerned as if it formed part of the present Treaty.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 25.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of
 
Peace and additional Conventions concluded by the other Contracting Powers with the Powers who fought on the side of Turkey, and to recognise whatever dispositions have been or may be
 
made concerning the territories of the former German Empire, of
 
Austria, of Hungary and of Bulgaria, and to recognise the new
 
States within their frontiers as there laid down.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 26.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey hereby recognises and accepts the frontiers of Germany,
 
Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Roumania, the
 
Serb-Croat-Slovene State and the Czechoslovak State, as these
 
frontiers have been or may be determined by the Treaties referred
 
to in Article 25 or by any supplementary conventions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 27.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No power or jurisdiction in political, legislative or administrative matters shall be exercised outside Turkish territory by the
 
Turkish Government or authorities, for any reason whatsoever,
 
over the nationals of a territory placed under the sovereignty or
 
protectorate of the other Powers signatory of the present Treaty,
 
or over the nationals of a territory detached from Turkey.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
It is understood that the spiritual attributions of the Moslem
 
religious authorities are in no way infringed.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 28.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Each of the High Contracting Parties hereby accepts, in so far
 
as it is concerned, the complete abolition of the Capitulations in
 
Turkey in every respect.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 29.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Moroccans, who are French nationals ("ressortissants") and
 
Tunisians shall enjoy in Turkey the same treatment in all respects
 
as other French nationals ("ressortissants").
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Natives ("ressortissants") of Libya shall enjoy in Turkey the
 
same treatment in all respects as other Italian nationals ("ressortissants") .
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The stipulations of the present Article in no way prejudge the
 
nationality of persons of Tunisian, Libyan and Moroccan origin
 
established in Turkey.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reciprocally, in the territories the inhabitants of which benefit
 
by the stipulations of the first and second paragraphs of this
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Article, Turkish nationals shall benefit by the same treatment as
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
in France and in Italy respectively.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The treatment to which merchandise originating in or destined
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
for the territories, the inhabitants of which benefit from the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
stipulations of the first paragraph of this Article, shall be subject
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
in Turkey, and, reciprocally, the treatment to which merchandise
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
originating in or destined for Turkey shall be subject in the said
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
territories shall be settled by agreement between the French and
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkish Governments.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SECTION II .
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NATIONALITY.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 30.
 
 
 
 
 
Turkish subjects habitually resident in territory which in accordance with the provisions of the present Treaty is detached from Turkey will become ipsofacto, in the conditions laid down by the local law, nationals of the State to which such territory is transferred.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 31.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Persons over eighteen years of age, losing their Turkish nationality and obtaining <i>ipso facto</i> a new nationality under Article 30, shall be entitled within a period of two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty to opt for Turkish nationality.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 32.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Persons over eighteen years of age, habitually resident in territory detached from Turkey in accordance with the present Treaty, and differing in race from the majority of the population of such territory shall, within two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, be entitled to opt for the nationality of one of the States in which the majority of the population is of the same race as the person exercising the right to opt, subject to the consent of that State.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 33.
 
Persons who have exercised the right to opt in accordance with the provisions of Articles 31 and 32 must, within the succeeding twelve months, transfer their place of residence to the State for which they have opted.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the
 
territory of the other State where they had their place of residence
 
before exercising their right to opt.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
They may carry with them their movable property of every
 
description. No export or import duties may be imposed upon
 
them in connection with the removal of such property.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 34.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Subject to any agreements which it may be necessary to conclude between the Governments exercising authority in the countries detached from Turkey and the Governments of the countries
 
where the persons concerned are resident, Turkish nationals of
 
over eighteen years of age who are natives of a territory detached
 
from Turkey under the present Treaty, and who on its coming
 
into force are habitually resident abroad, may opt for the nationality of the territory of which they are natives, if they belong by
 
race to the majority of the population of that territory, and subject to theconsent of the Government exercising authority therein.
 
This right of option must be exercised within two years from the
 
coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 35.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Contracting Powers undertake to put no hindrance in the
 
way of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned have
 
under the present Treaty, or under the Treaties of Peace concluded with Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary, or under
 
any Treaty concluded by the said Powers, other than Turkey,
 
or any of them, with Russia, or between themselves, to choose
 
any other nationality which may be open to them.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 36.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For the purposes of the provisions of this Section, the status of
 
a married woman will be governed by that of her husband, and
 
the status of children under eighteen years of age by that of their
 
parents.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SECTION III.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PROTECTION OF MINORITIES.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 37.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles
 
38 to 44 shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no law, no regulation, nor official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation, nor official action prevail over them.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 38.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life and liberty to ali inhabitants of Turkey without distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion.
 
 
 
 
All inhabitants of Turkey shall be entitled to free exercise, whether in public or private, of any creed, religion or belief, the observance of which shall not be incompatible with public order and good morals.
 
 
 
 
Non-Moslem minorities will enjoy full freedom of movement and of emigration, subject to the measures applied, on the whole or on part of the territory, to all Turkish nationals, and which may be taken by the Turkish Government for national defence, or for the maintenance of public order.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 39.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities will enjoy the same civil and political rights as Moslems.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
All the inhabitants of Turkey, without distinction of religion, shall be equal before the law.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Differences of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any Turkish national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or political rights, as, for instance, admission to public employments, functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No restrictions shall be imposed on the free use by any Turkish national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, religion, in the press, or in publications of any kind or at public meetings.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Notwithstanding the existence of the official language, adequate facilities shall be given to Turkish nationals of non-Turkish speech for the oral use of their own language before the Courts.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 40.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in fact as other Turkish nationals. In particular, they shall have an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own expense, any charitable, religious and social institutions, any schools and other
 
establishments for instruction and education, with the right to use
 
their own language and to exercise their own religion freely
 
therein.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 41.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As regards public instruction, the Turkish Government will
 
grant in those towns and districts, where a considerable proportion of non-Moslem nationals are resident, adequate facilities
 
for ensuring that in the primary schools the instruction shall be
 
given to the children of such Turkish nationals through the
 
medium of their own language. This provision will not prevent
 
the Turkish Government from making the teaching of the Turkish
 
language obligatory in the said schools.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion
 
of Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities, these
 
minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the enjoyment
 
and application of the sums which may be provided out of public
 
funds under the State, municipal or other budgets for educational,
 
religious, or charitable purposes.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The sums in question shall be paid to the qualified representatives of the establishments and institutions concerned.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 42.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to take, as regards non-Moslem minorities, in so far as concerns their family law or
 
personal status, measures permitting the settlement of these
 
questions in accordance with the customs of those minorities.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
These measures will be elaborated by special Commissions
 
composed of representatives of the Turkish Government and of
 
representatives of each of the minorities concerned in equal
 
number. In case of divergence, the Turkish Government and the
 
Council of the League of Nations will appoint in agreement an
 
umpire chosen from amongst European lawyers.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to grant full protection
 
to the churches, synagogues, cemeteries, and other religious
 
establishments of the above-mentioned minorities. All facilities
 
and authorisation will be granted to the pious foundations, and to
 
the religious and charitable institutions of the said minorities at
 
present existing in Turkey, and the Turkish Government will not
 
refuse, for the formation of new religious and charitable institu-
 
tions, any of the necessary facilities which are guaranteed to other
 
private institutions of that nature.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 43.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities shall not be compelled to perform any act which constitutes a violation of their faith or religious observances, and shall not be placed under any disability by reason of their refusal to attend Courts of Law or to perform any legal business on their weekly day of rest.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
This provision, however, shall not exempt such Turkish nationals from such obligations as shall be imposed upon all other Turkish nationals for the preservation of public order.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 44.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey agrees that, in so far as the preceding Articles of this Section affect non-Moslem nationals of Turkey, these provisions constitute obligations of international concern and shall be placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations. They shall not be modified without the assent of the majority of the Council of the League of Nations. The British Empire, France, Italy and Japan hereby agree not to withhold their assent to any modification in these Articles which is in due form assented to by a majority of the Council of the League of Nations.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey agrees that any Member of the Council of the League of Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the Council any infraction or danger of infraction of any of these obligations, and that the Council may thereupon take such action and give such directions as it may deem proper and effective in the circumstances.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turkey further agrees that any difference of opinion as to questions of law or of fact arising out of these Articles between the Turkish Government and any one of the other Signatory Powers or any other Power, a member of the Council of the League of Nations, shall be held to be a dispute of an international character under Article 14 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. The Turkish Government hereby consents that any such dispute shall, if the other party thereto demands, be referred to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The decision of the Permanent Court shall be final and shall have the same force and effect as an award under Article 13 of the Covenant.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 45.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The rights conferred by the provisions of the present Section on the non-Moslem minorities of Turkey will be similarly conferred by Greece on the Moslem minority in her territory.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FINANCIAL CLAUSES.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SECTION I.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OTTOMAN PUBLIC DEBT.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 46.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Ottoman Public Debt, as defined in the Table annexed to
 
the present Section, shall be distributed under the conditions laid
 
down in the present Section between Turkey, the States in favour
 
of which territory has been detached from the Ottoman Empire
 
after the Balkan wars of 1912-13, the States to which the islands
 
referred to in Articles 12 and 15 of the present Treaty and the
 
territory referred to in the last paragraph of the present Article
 
have been attributed, and the States newly created in territories
 
in Asia which are detached from the Ottoman Empire under the
 
present Treaty. All the above St ates shall also participate, under
 
the conditions laid down in the present Section, in the annual
 
charges for the service of the Ottoman Public Debt from the dates
 
referred to in Article 53.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
From the dates laid down in Article 53, Turkey shall not be
 
held in any way whatsoever responsible for the shares of the
 
Debt for which other States are liable.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For the purpose of the distribution of the Ottoman Public
 
Debt, that portion of the territory of Thrace which was under
 
Turkish sovereignty on the 1st August, 1914, and lies outside the
 
boundaries of Turkey as laid down by Article 2 of the present
 
Treaty, shall be deemed to be detached from the Ottoman
 
Empire under the said Treaty.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 47.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Council of the Ottoman Public Debt shall, within three
 
months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, determine, on the basis laid down by Articles 50 and 51, the amounts
 
of the annuities for the loans referred to in Part A of the Table
 
annexed to the present Section which are payable by each
 
of the States concerned, and shall notify to them this amount.
 
 
 
These States shall be granted an opportunity to send to
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Constantinople delegates to check the calculations made for this purpose by the Council of the Ottoman Public Debt.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Council of the Debt shall exercise the functions referred to in Article 134 of the Treaty of Peace with Bulgaria of the 27th November, 1919.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Any disputes which may arise between the parties concerned as to the application of the principles laid down in the present Article shall be referred, not more than one month after the notification referred to in the first paragraph, to an arbitrator whom the Council of the League of Nations will be asked to appoint; this arbitrator shall give his decision within a period of not more than three months. The remuneration of the arbitrator shall be determined by the Council of the League of Nations, and shall, together with the other expenses of the arbitration, be borne by the parties concerned. The decisions of the arbitrator shall be final. The payment of the annuities shall not be suspended by the reference of any disputes to the above-mentioned arbitrator.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 48.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The States, other than Turkey, among which the Ottoman Public Debt, as defined in Part A of the Table annexed to this Section is attributed, shall, within three months from the date on which they are notified, in accordance with Article 47, of their respective shares in the annual charges referred to in that Article, assign to the Council of the Debt adequate security for the payment of their share. If such security is not assigned within the above-mentioned period, or in the case of any disagreement as to the adequacy of the security assigned, any of the Governments signatory to the present Treaty shall be entitled to appeal to the Council of the League of Nations.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Council of the League of Nations shall be empowered to entrust the collection of the revenues assigned as security to international financial organisations existing in the countries
 
 
 
 
 
(other than Turkey) among which the Debt is distributed. The decisions of the Council of the League of Nations shall be final.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 49
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Within one month from the date of the final determination under Article 47 of the amount of the annuities for which each of the States concerned is liable, a Commission shall meet in
 
 
 
 
 
Paris to determine the method of carrying out the distribution
 
of the nominal capital of the Ottoman Public Debt as defined in
 
Part A of the Table annexed to this Section. This distribution
 
shall be made in accordance with the proportions adopted for the
 
division of the annuities, and account shall be taken of the
 
terms of the agreements governing the loans and of the provisions
 
of this Section.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Commission referred to in the first paragraph shall consist
 
of a representative of the Turkish Government, a representative
 
of the Council of the Ottoman Public Debt, a representative of
 
the debt other than the Unified Debt and the Lots Turcs; each
 
of the Governments concerned shall also be entitled to appoint a
 
representative. All questions in regard to which the Commission
 
may be unable to reach agreement shall be referred to the arbitrator referred to in the fourth paragraph of Article 47.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If Turkey shall decide to create new securities in respect of her
 
share, the distribution of the capital of the Ottoman Public Debt
 
shall be made in the first instance as it affects Turkey by a
 
Committee consisting of the representative of the Turkish Government, the representative of the Council of the Ottoman
 
Public Debt and the representative of the debt other than the
 
Unified Debt and the Lots Turcs. The new securities shall be
 
delivered to the Commission, which shall ensure their delivery
 
to the bondholders upon such terms as will provide for the
 
release of Turkey from liability and the rights of the bondholders
 
towards the other States which are liable for a share of the Ottoman Public Debt. The securities issued in respect of the share
 
of each State in the Ottoman Public Debt shall be exempt in the
 
territory of the High Contracting Parties from all stamp duties
 
or other taxes which would be involved by such issue.